Esperanto and Modern Literal Taiwanese (MLT/TMSS
).Introduction to the Language of Esperanto (
|.Lesson (1) . . . . Conversation(1) . . . . Esperanto-Taiwanese Dictionary|
|Sound symbols: ).= English, (.=Taiwanese, ].=Esperanto_|
_ ESPERANTO, designed in 1887,
is an artificial language for international communication. It is
a most successful
"Universal Language" in the history. ESPERANTO is widely learned and used by many international societies and people,
ecause it is grammatically simple, i.e. without the options existing in most natural languages and the usage apart from the
regularity of grammatical rules.
In the world today, there are more than one million Esperantists, that
is the person using ESPERANTO, and there are
more than thirty thousand books and articles written in ESPERANTO in the library of the British Esperanto Association.
Although this writing method has been suppressed improperly by the Chinese government as pro Western and anti Chinese, it is recognized by the supporters that this is the only way for Taiwanese people to write grammatically legal sentences. Such grammatical Taiwanese sentence written with Latin spelled words is called the Modern Literal Taiwanese by TMSS (MLT/TMSS).
In the modern world, it is recommended that MLT/TMSS should be utilized
for (1) elementary language education for Taiwanese children, (2) preparing
computerized and modern Taiwanese documents, and (3) electronic and international
) Characteristics of ESPERANTO(
ESPERANTO is intended for world-wide people to make mutual communication, and to learn as their common second
This artificial language is intended for people from every parts of the world to talk each other without discrimination in
nationality and social ranks.
It is recognized that the Esperanto talked by everybody is learned privately in home. It is, therefore, necessary that the
pronunciation of words is universally same as written on the text, and even the accent spoken should be fixed by a rule.
The pronunciation of letters in Esperanto is traditionally Latin.
Each letter is pronounced as its own without exception.
The accent always falls on the second syllable from the last of the world.
(The TMSS of Taiwanese words is also pronounced as Latin. It is just
like that of Esperanto, and the accent is strictly fixed by the sound of
phonemes. It is, therefore, no personal difference can occur in pronouncing
The phraseology of Esperanto is defined by only a few rules. No exception is observed in applying these rules. An Esperanto word can be changed from one kind of grammatical category (e.g. noun) to another one (e.g. verb). This arrangement makes people to speak Esperanto by remembering considerably few words.
(In the Formal Taiwanese, a noun is changed to other kind of words by adding certain preposition or suffix. This arrangement is in the same effect as Esperanto. This "Formal MLT" is a new way for promoting Taiwanese language, and will be explained in other sections.)
After more than one hundred years' promotion, Esperanto became a popular way for promotion friendship globally. Today, people in 66 nations can get contact with more than 3500 delegates through the UESA, Universala Esperanto-Asocio, and get acquainted with people all over the world. This can be said as a benefit for learning Esperanto. ________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___up
|Name (MLT)||[ - ]||[ji]||[ky]||[khy]||[ly]||[my]||[ny]||[o].||(o)||[py]||[phy\||[kiuq]|
|ai, au, ia, io, iu, iau, oa, oai, oe,oe, ui||complex vowels|
|am, an, ang, eng, im, in, ong, un||rear nasal vowels|
|iam, iang, ien, iong, oan||rear nasal complex vowels|
|af, ef, of, of (ay, aw, iaw, oay, uy)||raised tone for a,e,o,o (ai,au,iau,oai,ui)|
|ax, ex, ix, ox, ox||lower pushed tone for a,e,i.o,o,u|
|ar, ea, ie, or, or, uo (ae, ao)||upper pushed tone for a,e,i.o,o,u (ai, au)|
|aa, ee, ii, oo, oo, uu||bend tone for a. e, i, o, o, u|
|-_||¡]Esperanto¡^ vs.¡@ MLT/TMSS|
|Article||[ la ] vs._no article|
|Noun||[ suffix -o, as amo ] vs._orinary word is a nown, as aix|
|Adjective||[ suffix -a, as ama ] vs._¡ã ee, as aix ee; or using a conbined word asaix-zeeng = aezeeng|
|Plural||[ suffix -j , as tiu --> tiuj, amiko --> amikoj, bela knabino --> belaj knabinoj ] vs._plural word, hiah'ee:peng'iuo --> hiah'ee peng'iuo suie-koniuu --> hiah'ee suie-koniuu|
|Adverb||[ suffix -e , as ame (after the verb)] vs._ae'aix-ar, or chiongmoar-tioh aix ciu(in front of the verb)|
|Verb||[ infinitive: _ami (suffix -i); present: amas (suffix -as); past:_amis (suffix -is); future:_amos (suffix -os); sub-junctive_amus (suffix -us); imperative:_amu (suffix -u)] vs.infinitive is the original word, others use proper auxiliary verbes. I.e. present: teq aix; past:_bad aix; future:tehboeq aix; subjunctive:_na aix; imperative_tioh aix|
|Pronoun||[ mi vi li, shi ni vi ili ] vs. goar lie y, yi goarn, larn lirn yn|
|Combined word||[ scribi + tablo --> scribtablo ] vs.__siafji ee toq --> siarji-toq|
|Objective|| [ A
B (la tablo de scribo)
ee A = B-A
[ batas bonan hundon (suffix -n)] vs.__ka hor-kao phaq.
[ Infano ludas.]
vs. (._Gyn'ar teq chitthoo.
(2) ] [ Mi batas hundon.]
vs. (._Goar teq phaq kawar.
(3) ] [Mi estas sana.]
vs. (._Goar u iofngkvia.
(4) ]}[ Shi estas tre bela knabino.]
vs. (._Yi si cviaa-suie ee gyn'ar.
. ] [ Oni nomas lian lingvon Esperanto.]
vs. (._Laang kiox y ee gwbuun zox Seakaix-guo.
. ] [ Oni elektis lian prezidanto de nia societo.]
vs. (._Laang soarn y (zox) goarn-hiabhoe ee hoextviuo.
. ]l[La bela birdo kantas tre agrable.]v
vs. (._Suie ee ciawar chviux-gaq cyn-khoaelok.
. ] [ Mi amis nian nevon Johanon.]
vs. (._Goar bad aix goarn-tidar, Iok'han.
) Conversation, Lessons and a Simple Dictionary (
In this set of web package, most materials in the part of Conversation refer to the book "Exercises on Japanese-Esperanto Conversation" (Published by Daigakusyorin, Tokyo, 1957) by Professor Miyake Sihei of the Japanese Esperanto Association. We like to express our deep appreciation. The Taiwanese explanation in MLT in the materials is given by Prof. Liim Keahioong.
study those conversations, some basic knowledge on Esperanto grammar and
vocabulary is required. It is advised to our beginners to study
the lessons on beforehand. From those conversation texts, you
can access to a simple dictionary of Esperanto where words are translated
Lessons are all by the originator of Esperanto, Doktoro Ludoviko Lazaro Zamenhof (1859~1917). Explanation and grammatical comments are by Prof. Liim Keahioong of the EDUTECH Foundation, Taiwan.
Esperanto and Modern Literal Taiwanese by TMSS by Liim Keahioong, 2000/5/28