)[English Edition by Liim Keahioong]
) Esperanto  and  Modern Literal Taiwanese (MLT/TMSS
).Introduction to the Language of Esperanto (
..__ __  __ __  __ __  __ __  __ __  __ __to_MLT Edition_ _ + +   to_Index

 Letters in use . .  A ~ F . .  G ~  K . .  L ~ S . .  T ~ Zh_

.Lesson (1) . .   . . Conversation(1) . .   . . Esperanto-Taiwanese Dictionary

What is ESPERANTO ? . . What is TMSS ? . . Characteristic of ESPERANTO
Caracteristics of Esperanto     Ltter Isage in Esperanto and MLT
Pronunciattion of Alphabet and teir Usage    Phonemic Spelling of TMSS . .  Word Construction in ESPERANTO & TMSS     Basic Formal Grammar of  ESPERANTO & MLT . .  Conversation, Lessons and a Simple Dictionary
Lessons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
 Conversation  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
 Sound symbols: ).= English, (.=Taiwanese, ].=Esperanto_
)What is ESPERANTO ? (

      _  ESPERANTO,  designed in 1887, is an artificial language for international communication.  It is a most successful
"Universal Language" in the history.    ESPERANTO is widely learned and used by many international societies and people,
ecause it is grammatically simple, i.e. without the options existing in most natural languages and the usage apart from the
regularity of  grammatical rules.

          In the world today, there are more than one million Esperantists, that is the person using ESPERANTO, and there are
more than thirty thousand books and articles written in ESPERANTO in the library of the British Esperanto Association.

) What is Modern Literal Taiwanese (. ?
           MLT (Modern Literal Taiwanese) is the writing method for the nowadays spoken language of Taiwanese people.     Since 1943, it has been endeavored to express all Taiwanese words in Latin spelling, which made up the TMSS (Taiwanese Modern Spelling System).  Hence it became possible to write Taiwanese language word by word, instead of the classical Chinese way of Han-Character by Character.

          Although this writing method has been suppressed improperly by the Chinese government as pro Western and anti Chinese, it is recognized by the supporters that this is the only way for Taiwanese people to write grammatically legal sentences.    Such grammatical Taiwanese sentence written with Latin spelled words is called the Modern Literal Taiwanese by TMSS (MLT/TMSS).

          In the modern world, it is recommended that MLT/TMSS should be utilized for (1) elementary language education for Taiwanese children, (2) preparing computerized and modern Taiwanese documents, and (3) electronic and international communication. 

) Characteristics  of  ESPERANTO(
           ESPERANTO is intended for world-wide people to make mutual communication, and to learn as their common second
           This artificial language is intended for people from every parts of the world to talk each other without discrimination in
nationality and social ranks.
           It is recognized that the Esperanto talked by everybody is learned privately in home.   It is, therefore, necessary that the
pronunciation of words is universally same as written on the text, and even the accent spoken should be fixed by a rule.

           The pronunciation of letters in Esperanto is traditionally Latin.   Each letter is pronounced as its own without exception.
The accent always falls on the second syllable from the last of the world.

           (The TMSS of Taiwanese words is also pronounced as Latin.  It is just like that of Esperanto, and the accent is strictly fixed by the sound of phonemes.  It is, therefore, no personal difference can occur in pronouncing TMSS.)
           The phraseology of Esperanto is defined by only a few rules.   No exception is observed in applying these rules.  An Esperanto word can be changed from one kind of grammatical category (e.g. noun) to another one (e.g. verb).  This arrangement makes people to speak Esperanto by remembering considerably few words.
           (In the Formal Taiwanese, a noun is changed to other kind of words by adding certain preposition or suffix.  This arrangement is in the same effect as Esperanto.   This "Formal MLT" is a new way for promoting Taiwanese language, and will be explained in other sections.)
           After more than one hundred years' promotion,  Esperanto became a popular way for promotion friendship globally.    Today, people in 66 nations can get contact with more than 3500 delegates through the UESA, Universala Esperanto-Asocio, and get acquainted with people all over the world.   This can be said as a benefit for learning Esperanto. ________   _   _   _   _   _   _   _   _   _    _     _   _    _     _    ___up

)Letters used in Esperanto and TMSS (
          Both Esperanto and TMSS use the same Latin alphabet.   The pronunciation of each letter is similar as shown below.    (In Esperanto, there are some letters having an superimposed symbol (^).  This symbol can be put after the letter or replaced with the latter  h  or the letter  when the document is prepared with an ordinary typewriter.   Thus,     C^ = Ch = Cx¡C )
Esperanto A B C C^ D E F G G^ H H^ I
Typewriting A B C Ch D E F G Gh H Hh I
Name  (Esp.) [a] [bo] [zo] [chio] [do] [e] [fo] [go] [jio] [ho] [Ho] [i]
_TMSS A B C Ch (D) E (F) G - H - I
Name  (MLT) [a] [by] [cy] [chy] [ied] [e] [ef] [gi]  -  [hy]  -  [i]
_  _
 Esperanto J J^ K (K) L M N O - P (P) -
Typewriting J  Jh K (K) L M N O - P (P) -
Name  (Esp.) [io] [jo] [ko] (kho) [lo] [mo] [no] [o]. - [po] (pho) -
_TMSS (I) J K Kh L M N O O P Ph (Q)
Name  (MLT) [ - ] [ji] [ky] [khy] [ly] [my] [ny] [o]. (o) [py] [phy\ [kiuq]
_   _
 Esperanto R S S^ T (T) U UV V - - - Z (Z)
Typewriting R S Sh T (T) U U V - - - Z (Z)
Name (Esp.) [ro] [so] [sho] [to] (tho) [u] [wo] [vo] - - - [jwo] (zho)
_TMSS_ (R) S Sh T Th U (U) (V) (W) (X) (Y) Z Zh
Name (MLT) [ar] [sy] [shy] [ty] [thy] [u] [-] [viw] [w] [ex] [y] [zef] [zheq]
    In Esperanto, letters  k, p, t, are pronounced as  [k~ or kh~], [p~or ph~], [t~ or th~] for individual case.    In TMSS, each couple should be discriminated clearly.    J in TMSS corresponds to  Jh in Esperanto, and pronounced like  Gh. C,CH in TMSS should follow the vowel  [~i~] only;   [~a~. ~e~,~o~,~o~, ~u~, ~ng] follow Z,Zh.
_____                                                                                              ____up

)Pronunciation of Alphabets and their Usage (

)Special Phonemics of TMSS (
         In TMSS, there are some fixed sets of two or three letters that express special sounds; which are called the phonems for those sounds.
phonem explanation
ai, au, ia, io, iu, iau, oa, oai, oe,oe, ui  complex vowels
am, an, ang, eng, im, in, ong, un rear nasal vowels
iam, iang, ien, iong, oan rear nasal complex vowels
af, ef, of, of    (ay, aw, iaw, oay, uy)  raised tone for a,e,o,o (ai,au,iau,oai,ui)
ax, ex, ix, ox, ox lower pushed tone for a,e,i.o,o,u
ar, ea, ie, or, or, uo  (ae, ao)  upper pushed tone for a,e,i.o,o,u  (ai, au)
aa, ee, ii, oo, oo, uu  bend tone for a. e, i, o, o, u

) Word Construction in Esperanto and MLT (
  __ _
-_ ¡]Esperanto¡^ vs.¡@ MLT/TMSS
Article   [ la ] vs._no article
Noun  [ suffix -o,  as amo ] vs._orinary word is a nown, as aix
Adjective  [ suffix -a, as ama ] vs._¡ã ee, as aix ee; or using a conbined word asaix-zeeng = aezeeng
Plural  [ suffix -j , as tiu --> tiuj,  amiko --> amikoj,  bela knabino --> belaj knabinoj ] vs._plural word, hiah'ee:peng'iuo --> hiah'ee  peng'iuo   suie-koniuu --> hiah'ee suie-koniuu
Adverb   [ suffix -e , as   ame (after the verb)] vs._ae'aix-ar, or chiongmoar-tioh aix ciu(in front of the verb)
Verb  [ infinitive: _ami (suffix  -i); present: amas (suffix -as);  past:_amis (suffix -is); future:_amos  (suffix  -os); sub-junctive_amus  (suffix  -us); imperative:_amu (suffix  -u)] vs.infinitive  is the original word, others use proper auxiliary verbes.  I.e. present: teq  aix; past:_bad  aix;  future:tehboeq  aix;  subjunctive:_na aiximperative_tioh aix
Pronoun  [ mi  vi   li, shi   ni   vi   ilivs.  goar   lie   y, yi    goarn, larn  lirn   yn
Combined word  [ scribi + tablo  -->  scribtablo ] vs.__siafji  ee  toq  --> siarji-toq
Objective  [ A de  B    (la tablo de scribo)vs.__B  ee  A  =  B-A
 [ batas bonan hundon (suffix -n)] vs.__ka hor-kao phaq.
)  Basic Grammatical Forms of Esperanto and TMSS(
 (1) ]. [ Infano  ludas.]
     vs. (._Gyn'ar  teq  chitthoo.
 (2)  ] [ Mi batas  hundon.]
              vs. (._Goar teq  phaq  kawar.
 (3)  ] [Mi  estas  sana.]
               vs. (._Goar  u  iofngkvia.
 (4)  ]}[ Shi  estas  tre  bela  knabino.]
               vs. (._Yi si  cviaa-suie ee gyn'ar.
    . ] [ Oni   nomas  lian  lingvon  Esperanto.]
               vs. (._Laang  kiox  y  ee  gwbuun  zox  Seakaix-guo.
   . ]Oni  elektis  lian  prezidanto  de  nia  societo.]
                vs. (._Laang  soarn  y  (zox)  goarn-hiabhoe  ee   hoextviuo.
  . ]l[La  bela  birdo  kantas  tre  agrable.]v
                 vs. (._Suie  ee  ciawar  chviux-gaq  cyn-khoaelok.
   . ] [ Mi  amis  nian  nevon  Johanon.]
                  vs. (._Goar  bad  aix  goarn-tidar,  Iok'han.

) Conversation, Lessons and a Simple Dictionary (
  In this set of web package, most materials in the part of Conversation refer to the book "Exercises on Japanese-Esperanto Conversation" (Published by Daigakusyorin, Tokyo, 1957) by Professor Miyake Sihei of the Japanese Esperanto Association.   We like to express our deep appreciation.  The Taiwanese explanation in MLT in the materials is given by Prof. Liim Keahioong.

  To study those conversations, some basic knowledge on Esperanto grammar and vocabulary is required.   It is advised to our beginners to study the lessons on beforehand.   From those conversation texts, you can access to a simple dictionary of Esperanto where words are translated into MLT.
     .         __
  Lessons are all by the originator of Esperanto, Doktoro Ludoviko Lazaro Zamenhof (1859~1917).  Explanation and grammatical comments are by Prof. Liim Keahioong of the EDUTECH Foundation, Taiwan.

Esperanto and Modern Literal Taiwanese by TMSS            by Liim Keahioong, 2000/5/28