Basic Sandhi Rule & Short Stories, from
"Textbook of Modern Leteral Taiwanese"
1990, by Professor K-H Liim
to Sandkhi Rule Practice   to EXPLANATION     to  EDUTECH Entry Page
  ------------- < Taiwanese text, and. Blue is English instruction or translation >--------------. .
Quick Search:  (.Preface- -(.Explanation on Word and Short Sentence
-  -(.Short Stories
Audio-Lessons:( 1  2   3   4   (.5  6  7 
    9 10   11   12
In this book, the phonetic letter [ø] is used to emphasize that in some part of Taiwan 
it is pronounced like [er] in English, but it may be pronounced as ordinary [o] in other places.
    . .
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Preface
     Mother tongue is a colloquial language of sounds.    The Modern Literal Taiwanese (MLT) is the most ideal language of spoken Taiwanese.   It is a language based on every definite word with fixed meaning.
     When we want to lean Taiwanese with this Modern Literal Taiwa-
nese, we should (1) memorize the spelling and meaning of every word in the sentence, (2) study the sequencial arrangement of words in accord with the grammar, and (3) familiarize the customary mood and expression of Taiwanese people in speaking.    Thus, we will understand the reading and compositioon of Taiwanese sentence.   furthermore, to be able to recite the sentence before an audience, we should understand the tonal expression of each word at a specific position of the given sentence, and know well the possible change of the tone of the word. 
     This book is written for students who have learned from their teacher some characteristics of the Taiwanese tones, or have studied the preceding book of this series and understand already the eight tones of words.   They can learn here the characteristics of Taiwanese vocabulary and sentence.   This book is also able to be used as an introductory textboo of Taiwanese;  in this case, however, it may require a proper teacher to teach him the exact pronunciation. 
       In the following sections, let's review the specific portions of Modern Literal Taiwanese. 
A.  Latinized Writing of Taiwa-
nese Word --- TMSS (the Taiwa-
nese Modern Spelling System)
      The writing specification of Taiwanese word in Latin spelling is called the Taiwanese Modern Spelling System (TMSS).
     The Modern Literal Taiwanese (MLT) since 1943 has established 

for every Taiwanese word a specific  spelling in accord with its pronunciation.
  For instance, kao is "dog", zao is "to run", ciao is "bird", haghau is "school", kaohoe is "church", and lauxlaang is "old man".   Here we see the sound [au] in "dog", "to run", "bird", and "church" is a forcibly pushed out sound, and is given the spelling of ao; but it is a medium flat sound in "school" and is  a downward voice in "old man", which are given the spellings of au and aux.
      The spelling in MLT is based on  pronunciation of the whole word.  In this manner, a petit dog is written as kaw'ar which is derived from kao+ar, and an old man lauxlaang is derived from lau+laang, and school junitor hauxkafng from hau+kafng
     In this way, foregoing syllable in bisyllable or polysyllable words always change its voice ans spelling.   To pre-
vent difference in local sounds, MLT established a legal scheme for tone changes.
     An inportant idea is that although MLT defined unified spelling for those words, it did not compel people to read them in unified way.   Everybody is allowed to pronounce each word freely with his native sound.   It is also allowed to write a propper phonetics for prefered sound.   What sort of phonetics is up to the people.   It is, however, recommended to write the nified seplling of MLT in official or ordinary documents.
B. Letter & Standard Pronunciation of MLT
      MLT  uses 27 letters, that is one letter more than English alphabet.
The letter is an old Norwegian letter  (which is also written as ø, o, or ordinary o for easy typewriting) giving Taiwanese sound of the word  "oyster".   There is also in German a corresponding letter of ö.
    The Italic letter "v" ub TMSS a nasal sound to the followed vowel. 

An example is kviaa for "to walk".   In typewriting, we can use "v" instead.   The use of this Italic letter was derived
from Japanese Kana of "ng" in 1943.
Taiwanese Alphabets
a   b   c   d       e   f   g
h   i    j    k       l   m   n
o   ø   p   q       r   s   t
u     w   x       y   z-
  (note)  d, f, q, r, x  are soundless "tone letters", and v,  ø as explained above.
   (1) In the above table, consonant letters are:  b. c. g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, s, t, and z.   Vowel letters are: a, e, i, o, ø, u and w, y.
   (2) A consonant letter becomes a nasal consonant letter by adding h, such as ch, kh, ph, th and zh.   Adding the letter v after a consonant letter makes a nasal consonant, including: cv, chv, gv, hv, kv, khv, pv, phv, sv, tv, thv, zv, and zhv.
    (3) A, e, i, o, ø, u are simple vowels.   Except those, m and ng become simple vowels, as in m "don't" and hng "far".
Two or more vowels composes complex vowels.   Adding m, n, or ng after a vowel constructs a post-nasal vowel.
    (4)  Vowel letters w and y are Raised-tone vowels from Fundamental-
tone vowels u and i.   These two kind of vowels are as follows:
F-tone  ku   ti   ciu   tai   cim   hun
R-tone  kw  ty  ciw   tay  cym  hwn
    Vowel letters a, e, o,  ø, m, and ng construct  Raised-tone vowels with a tone letter f, i.e. af, ef, of, and øf
Raised-tone spelling of all vowels are compared with their Fundamental-tone 
spelling  in the above table.    In this table, the spelling øe is used to express that the word is read by people as either  o or oe.   (In documents 

where no ø is used,  it is generally written as oe). toLesson-Search
    (5)  The letter x in the alphabet is a soundless tone-letter to produce a forcibly suppressed sound.   This is called as a Pushed-Down tone.  Such as: poxsox (steps), taixcix (matter).
    (6)  In contrary to this sound, a Pushed-Up tone is constructed for a,  o, ø, m, and ng by adding the tone letter
r.   The products are: ar, or, ør, mr, ngr, and arm, arn, arng, iar, iarm, iarng, oar, oarn, orng, iør, iorng, etc.
    The Pushed-Up tones of e, i, and u are not constructed with r.  Instead, special spelling of ea, ie, and uo are used.   The extension of these usages are:  oea, øea, ae, oae, uie, iuo, and ao
for  oe, øe, ai, oai, ui, iu, and au,
    For all post-nasal spellings, however, r is always used, e.g., irm, irn, erng, iern, urn, iarm, iarng, etc.
    (8)  Easily readable spellings are such as laang, kaau, kiuu, koo, which are called Bend tones.   Double vowels are the characteristics here.  Exception is the Bend tone of ø, which is øo as in words: øo, bøo, and høo.
     Often neglected tone is the Bend-Up tone, which is a Bend tone first and followed with a Pushed-up tone.
    (9) Shortly cut sounds are called Stops.   Mandarin does not show this sound clearly.   In Taiwanese. there are High-Stops and Low-Stops, as follows:
 Stops example
    ap     sat      zek     tah
    ab     sad      zeg     taq
C.  Reading MLT Sentence
     MLT is composed of words with 
Latin spelling.   To read such a sentence, it is sometimes not neccesary to recite every word clearly and accurately as it stands independently.
   The point is to understand by vision. 
Thus, it is important to memorize the word spelling by sight.
      There are some examples of sentence, words in which are most common wrods in Taiwanese language.
So please remember those common words by mind, till you can write down as you think about the word.
    "To read by vision" is the education-
al keypoint of MLT.   In reading other sentences, what do catch our sight are those common words.   Take them as the center of recognition, go to under-
stand thoe whole sentence.   Whenever there is a name of a person pr a pronoun, it will be the eyecatcher.
     Followings are such pronouns:
[personal pronoun] goar (I), lie (you), y(he),  yi (she), goarn (we), larn (we), lirn (you) yn (they)
[indicative pronoun] zef (this), hef (that), cit'ee (this one). hit'ee (that one),  ciah'ee (these), hiah'ee (those),
[interrogative pronoun] symmih (what),  sviaflaang (who), taf'ui (where), tangsii (when),  zvayviu (how) 
      To talk about two things together, 
we use the following conjunctionsand prepositions:
[conjunction and prepositiong] kab (and with), koq (also), iafsi (or), ar (and), mxkuo(but),  in'ui (because), sof'ie (so), afnny (thus),na (if), ciu (then), to  (then), ia (too),ma (also), lorng (all), tuix (toward),  tuy (from), kaux (till), ti (at), 
tngf (when), nar (as if), juo (more), chinchviu (like)
   Specially important for visual reading is the proverbs.  It is always followed
 by a  central verb on behavior or action.   A proverb is, thus, 
a keyword for the meaning of the sentence.
[proverbboeq (want to), m (don't), boo (not intended to), u (intended to), aix (like to), mx'aix (dislike to), boboeq (not want to), kohboeq (want again to), teq (is doing) 
     MLT bestows the Taiwanese written language a difinitive grammar 

grammar in such a way.   This is an indispensable element for the modernization of Taiwanese language.               September, 1990
                       by  Liim, Keahioong

. .vVocabulary &
  . .Short.Sentence
   Most Taiwanese words are const-
ructed from two characters.   To show that the first character is not an independent word, we change its tone
and suggest it is not yet completed. 
For instance, when zhao "grass" and zhoaf "flower" are combined to show "unworthy flower", the combination is made by changing the tone of "grass" and gives zhawhoef.   We say that there occurs a tone-change in order to bind them together.
     People gown in Taiwan are accus-
tomed to this tone-change and can change the preceding sound properly. The MLT recognizes that this tone-change is an important characteri-
tics of Taiwanese, and includes it perfectly into the word spelling.   For standardize the spellings, MLT adopts a "formalized rule for tone-changes" as shown in the following tables.    Here we see, the tone-changes of  Fundamental tone (upper-most line), of four aadjutant tones (middle two lines), and of two Stops (lowest line).
    Lesson 1 shows the formal tone-
change when a single character is followed by -ar, Lesson 2 shows that the last character does not change tone, and  Lessons 3 and 4 show the unification of two characters. 
     There are in Lessons 4 to 12  the 
practice of short sentences.   Words in the midst of a sentence may change their last tone in accordance to their grammatical situation.   However, the word which has to be changed may be intentionally kept its sound if the speaker want to emphasize that word.
This tone change of words in sintence is a form of liaison that is special to Taiwanese language.
    Grammatically, the subject of a sentence should keep its sound.   This is a general rule.   But in conversation, a personal pronoun as the subject  may change its tone to express politeness of the speaker.   This is, however, forbid-
den in recitation.
     A sentence is constructed with words.   The MLT demand to write a sentence with original spellings of those words.   Never change the spelling because the tone of the word should change in conversation. 
    A special phonetical system called "phonetogram" is used to suggest the true pronunciation of the whole sentence.   The "phonetogram" means graphical phonetics of Taiwanese.   This is used to let readers lean Taiwanese 
conversation in Lessons 5 to 8.   Any phonetics is but an annotation.  Only  MLT sentence with TMSS should appear in Taiwanese documnents.   In Lessons 9 to 11, liaison symbols are added  into

the rather long sentences to assist
recitation of our readers.
(Note:  ( =  Liim's voice in 2008)
           . . Lesson 1 
=  Tøe-1 Khøx  =  Toex'id Khox
Basic Sandhi Rule 
     on Adding "ar"

    .svaf (clothes)
  .sva'ar (petit clothes) 
   .   .   .sva'ar-kuun
                (upper clothes and skirt)
   .tøf (knife)  =  tof
  .tø'ar (s,a;; knife) 
   .   .   .tø'ar-pvix (knife-handle)
   .kafm (tangerine)
  .kam'ar (tangerine) 
   .   .   .kam'afbit   (tomato)
   .chiaf (vehicle)
  .chia'ar (toy car) 
   .   .   .chia'ar-liern
 <-(   .   .  .   .   .(wheel of small car)
   .aw (cup)
  .au'ar (tea cup) 
   .   .   .au'ar-zof (set of cups)
   .ty (pig)
  .ti'ar (small pig) 
   .   .   .ti'ar-thaau (head of pig)
tone-change rule]    Raised tone --> Fundamental tone 
     svaf -> sva'ar,   tof -> to'ar,   kafm -> kam'ar,   chiaf -> chia'ar,

[   to Lesson-Search
   .biø(temple)  =  bio
  .biøx'ar (small temple) 
   .   .   .biøx'ar-mngg
 <-(                  (gate of a temple)
    .o (taro) 
  .ox'ar (ordinary taro) 
   .   .   .ox'ar-pefng 
      .   .   .    . (taro-icecream)
   .chiu (tree)
  .chiux'ar (small tree) 
   .   .   .chiux'ar-khaf
      .   .   .    . (under the tree)
   .voar (bowl) 
  .voaf'ar (small bowl) 
   .   .   .voaf'ar-lai
      .   .   .    .(inside the bowl)
   .ciao (bird) 
  .ciaw'ar (small bird) 
   .   .   .ciaw'ar-siu
<-(   .   .   .    .(nest of bird) (chair) 
  .y'ar (small chair) 
   .   .   .y'ar-terng (on the chair)
[tone-change rule]    Fundamental tone --> Pushed-down tone
     .   .   .    .     .   .   .    .    .bio -->biox'ar,  o --> ox'ar,  chiu --> chiux'ar.
pushed-up tone --> Raised tone
voar->voaf'ar,  ciao->ciaw'ar,  ie-->y'ar
   ..zhux (house) 
  .zhuo'ar(small house) 
   .   .   .zhuo'ar-thafng
<-(                  (window of house)
   .ixn (stamp) 
  .irn'ar (hand stamp) 
   .   .   .irn'ar-taai
      .   .   .    . (stand for stamps)
   .phaux (fire-cracker) 
  . .(children's fire-cracker) 
   .   .   .phao'ar-sviaf
      .        (sound of fire-cracker)
   .kii (flag) 
  .ki'ar(hand flag) 
   .   .   .ki'ar-pox
      .   .   .    .(cloth of flag)
   .øee (shoes)  =  oee
  ..øe'ar (small shoes) 
   .   .   .oe'ar-toax
 <-(     .   .   .    .(shoestring)
   .zuun (ship) 
  .zun'ar (boat) 
   .   .   .zun'ar-cviw
                    (oar of a boat)
[tone-change rule]    Pushed-down tone --> Puzhed-up tone
     .   .   .    .     .   .     .zhux -->  zhuo'ar,  ixn --> irn'ar,  phaux --> phao'ar
   .ciøh (stone)  =  cioh
  .ciøq'ar (stone chips)
   .   .   .ciøq'ar-phvix
 <-(           (flat fragments of rock)
   .chiøq (ruler) = chioq
     . (measuring stick) 
   .   .   .chiøh'ar-ky 
      .   .   .    . (measuring stick)
   chiøh(grass mat)=chioh
  .chiøq'ar (home mat) 
   .   .   .chiøq'ar-ie
      .   .   .    . (mat chair)
  tøq(table) = toq
  .tøh'ar (desk)
   .   .tøh'ar-bin(surface of desk)
   .iøh (drug) = ioh
    .iøq'ar (medicine) 
   .   .   .iøq'ar-tøe
 <-(.   .   .    .(medicine bag)
   .hiøh(leaf) = hioh
  .hioq'ar (small leaf) 
   .   .   .hioq'ar-au (back of leaf)
tone-change rule]    High-Stop ---> Low-Stop
     .   . cioh --> cioq'ar,  chioh --> chioq'ar,  ioh --> ioq'ar,  hioh --> hioq'ar 
Low-Stop --->  High Stop
  chioq --> chioh'ar,  toq --> toh'ar
  back to Lesson-Search
  . .  Lesson 2
=  Tøe-2  Khøx  =  Toexji  Khox
Word Construction with 
     a Frontal Modifier
 <-(     .
   .zhao (grass)
  .hoezhao(floral grass)
   .   .   .naseg-zhao (blue grass)
   .   .   .peqseg-aw(white cup)
  .katøf .(scissors) 
    chiwsut-tøf(operation knife)
  .iø'naa (cradle) 
 bøefzhaix-naa.(market basket)
   hangloo-svix.(fan for stove)
  .pngx'voar(rice bowel) 
   . hui'ar-voar (porcelain bowel)
word construction] .hoezhao = hoef-zhao, 'aw = tee-aw, katof = kaf-
tof,  io'naa te= ioo-naa,  khoesvix = khoef-svix,  pngx'voar = png-voar
[pronunciation] [nasekzhao],  [peqsek'
aw], [chiwsudtof], [boefzhae'naa], [hanglosvix] , [hui'af'voar]
   .tefng (lamp)
    tiexntefng(electric lamp)
   .   .   .ciaobeeng-tefng
  <-(                  (illuminating light)
   .loo (stove) 
  .hoefloo (fire stove)
   .   .chiwthee-loo(hand stove)
   .kiuu (ball) 
  .khiekiuu .(balloon) 
     kannar-kiuu(Rugby football)
   .ti (chopsticks) 
  .zhati (wooden chopsticks) 
 chviuxgee-ti.(ivory chopsticks)
   .sii (spoon or key)
  .thngsii(table spoon) 
   .sii (spoon or key) 
  .søfsii (key) 
word construction] .tiexntefng = tien-tefng,  hoefloo = hoea-loo, 
 khiekiuu = khix-kiuu, zhati = zhaa-ti, thngsii = thngf-sii, sofsii = sor-siir
[pronunciation] [ciaobengtefng]. [chiw-
theloo],  kannafkiuu]
[   back to Lesson-Search
  . . . . . Lesson 3
=  Tøe-3  Khøx =  Toexsvaf  Khox
Sandhi Rule in construc-
ting a Two-syllable
    hoxsvoax (unbrella)
   .   .   .jidsvoax  (parasol)
   .mngg-sør (door-rock) 
  .mngsør (rock) 
   .  cthoah'ar-sør(drawer-rock)
   .sii-zefng (time-clock) 
  .sizefng .(clock) 
     taang-zefng (copper-bell)
   .ie-liaau (stool-long) 
  .yliaau (long stool) 
  .zhasøef (wooden comb)
   .tee-kor (tea-kettle) 
  .tekor (tee kettle)
     zuie-kor (water-bucket)
 . . .zuykor (water bucket)
   .tee-koaxn (tea-pot)
   tekoaxnn(tea pot)
   .   .   .guny-koaxn (milk pot)
  .høefthvoax (coal) 
   .   .bu'iefn-thvoax
                       (smokeless coal)
   .hvi-kaw (ear-hook)
  .hvixkaw .(earing)
     tiorhii-kaw (fishing hook)
   .bak-kviax (eye-lens) 
  .bagkviax (glasses)
     (mirror for half-body)
               (mosquito-net )
  .bafngtax (mosquito net) 
   .titw-bang   (spider web) 

back to Lesson-Search

  .     . . Lesson 4
=  Tøe-4  Khøx  =  Toexsix  Khox
   hunzhøef (smoking pipe)
  .hongzhøef (kite)
   .kau-zheq (thick-book) 
  .kauxzheq .(thick book) 

   .chiu-ky (tree-branch) 
  .chiuxky (branch)

               (sleeping-bed )
  .binzhngg (bed)
<-(     .
  .zuytharng (bucket)

     back to Lesson-Search

Lesson 5
  . . Lesson 5
=  Tøe-5  Khøx  =  Toexgo  Khox
 . . . .  . . . Short Sentence
  . . .  with Phoneogram
  , , , , , , , 
1.  Y  si  laang.    .[ !i sila^ng]
      He is a person.
<-( ,
2.  Goar  mxsi  hii. .[ goa+ !msihi^i ]
      I am not a fish.
3.  Larn  lorng  si  Taioaan-laang.
   .[ lan+longsi tai!oanla^ng ]
      We are all Taiwanese people.
4.  Ciaf  u  toaxciaq  kao.
    .[ cia!utoaciaqkau+ ]
      Here is a large dog.
5.  Hiaf ma u toaxciaq kao.
.  .[ hiama !utoaciaqkau+
      There is also a large dog.
6.  Hiaf ia u søeaciaq kao.
. .[ hia !ia !u  soe+ciaq kau+ ]
      There is a small dog, too.
7.  Lie  bøeq  symmih?    .[ li+boeq
 simmih ]     What do you want? 
8.  Goar bøeq cidtex pviar.
    .[ goa+boeqcidte+pvia+ ]
      I want a piece of cake.
9.  Yn  ia  bøeq  pviar. .[ !in !ia boeq
  pvia+ ]     They want cakes, too.
10. Lie  bøeq,  iar  m?    .[ 1i+ boeq
  !ia !m ]      You want, or not?
    back to Lesson-Search
  . . . Lesson 6
=  Tøe-6  Khøx  =  Toexlak  Khox
 . . .   . . . . . Verb
 , , , , , , , , , 
1.  Y  khix  haghau. [ !iki+haghau]
<-(       He  goes  to  school.
2.  Lie laai zwjid'øh. .[li+ laizujid!oh]
      You came to sunday school..
3.  Yn khix iuotixhngg.
    .[ !inki+!iu+ti hng^g ]
      They went to kindergarten.
4.  Goarn mxsi hagsefng.
 . . .[ goan+ !m si hagseng ]
  . . We  are  not  students.
5.  Goar si haghau ee lauxsw.
.  .[ goa+ si haghau  !e lausu
 <-(      I am a teacher in the school.
6.  Yi si iuotixhngg ee a'ii    .[ !i si
    !iu+ tihng^g  !e !a!i^i ]   She is a
   lady-teacher in kindergarten.
<-(7.  Ti zwjid'øh, u hagsefng kab 
 .lauxsw. .[ ti zujid!oh / !u hagsengkip
 .lausu ]    In the kindergarten, there
 .are schoolboys and teachers.
8.  Ciaf ia u acie kab køkøf.  Yn
 .lorng si lauxsw.  .[ cia !ia !u !aci+ 
 .kab  koko / !in long si lausu ]
      Here are also sisters and
 .brothers.  They are all teachers..
9.  Larn ti zwjid'øh bøeq thviaf-.korsu, ia bøeq chviuokoaf..
  [ lan+  tzujid!oh boeq tviako+su/ !ia. boeq cviu+koa  ]
  In the kinder-garten, we listen into stories, and also sing songs.
10. Abuo zhoa goar laai ciaf.  Atiaf ti zhux^nih. 

    [ !abu+zoa  goa+ lai cia  /  !atia  ti zunih ] Mama brought me here.  Papa is at home.
   back to Lesson-Search
 . . .Lesson 7
=  Tøe-7  Khøx  =  Toexchid  Khox
1.  Cit, Nng, svaf, six, go, lak, chid, pøeq, kao, zap.  [ cid / nng / sva / si /
.go / lak / cid / poeq / kau+ / zap ]
 One, two, three, four, five, six, 
 .seven, eight, nine, ten
2.  Kin'afjit si symmih'jit?  Kin'afjit
  si Lefpaix-jit.  [ kin!ajit  si  simmih
 jit  /  kin!ajit  si  lepaijit  ] 
   .What day is it today?   It is Sunday today.
3.  Min'afzaix si symmih'jit? 
  Min'af-zaix si Pae'id. [ min!azai
.si  pai!id  ]         What day is it 
  .tomorow?   Tomorow is Monday.
4.  Pae'id si sioxngkhøx ee tøex'id
  .jit. [pai!id  si  siongko  !e
  .toe!id  jit ]Monday is the first 
  .day of school.
5.  Pae'ji, Pae'svaf, Pae'six, pae'go kaux Pae'lak. . .[ paeji / paesva / paesi / paego <-(kau+ paelak
  .Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday till Saturday.
6.  Cidjit, nngxjit, svajit, siejit, goxjit,
  .lagjit, lofngzorng u chitjit., [ cidjit /
  .nngjit / svajit / si+jit/ gojit /lagjit
  .longzong+ !ucitjit ]   .One day, two
  .days, three days, four days, five 
 .days, six days, it is seven days
7.  Lirn  tngfkhix  zhux^nih,  tiøh  koaikoay,  tiøh  thvia'oe. 
   .[ lin+  tngki+zunih / tioh koaikoai / tiohtvia!oe ]    .You return
   home, should be well-behaved, should be obedient.

[note] Paix-1 = Paix-id = Pae'id etc.,
cidjit = 1-jit, nngxjit = 2-jit, etc.
8.  Abuo si lie ee lauxbuo, atiaf si
  .lie ee lauxpe, køkøf si toaxhviaf, 
  .acie si toaxcie.
 <-(.[ !abu+  si  li+  !e  laubu+ /  !atia
  .si  li+  !e  laupe / koko  si
  . toahvia  /  !aci+  si  toaci+ ]
   .Abuo is your mother, atiaf is your
  .father, elder brother, acie
  .elder sister.
9.  Zhux^nih  iao  u  siofti  kab 
  .siofmoe. .[ zunih  !iau  !u  siot
  .kab  siomoe  ]     In the home, you
 .have still younger brothers and 
  .younger sisters.
10.  Larn-taixkef bøeq svathviax,
  .afnny ciaq øe ho padlaang ølør.
  [ lan taike  boeq  svatvia  /  !anni
  .ciaq  !oe  ho  la^ng  !olo+ ]
  .We all must love each other, so
  .will be praised by others.
11. Toax  ti  Bykog  ee  laang  si
 .Bykog-laang, toax ti Jidpurn ee
  .laang si Jidpurn-laang.
   .[ toa+  ti  bikog  !e  la^ng  si
  .bikogla^ng / toa+  ti  jidpun+   !e
  .la^ng si  jidpunla^ng  ]
12.  Seakaix  u  kuynax'ciorng  ee
  .laang.   Yn  ee phøehw,  bøsiang
  .seg.    Yn  lorng  si  larn  ee
  Se+kai  !u  kuinaciong+!e  la^ng  /  !in  !e poehu bosiangseg  /
  .!in  long  si  lan+  ! peng!iu+  ]     . .The world has several kinds

of people.   Their skin are different in color.   They are all our friends.
  back to Lesson-Search
 . . .   Lesson 8
=  Tøe-8 Khøx =  Toexpoeq Khox
1.  Jidthaau tuy tangpeeng khie^laai.
  . Y tuix saipeeng løh^khix.
 . [ jidta^u  tui  tangpe^ngki+lai / !
  .tui+  saipe^ng  lohki ]
   The sun rises from the east.  It sets down to the west. 
2.  Peng'iuo tuy Jidpurn laai,  yn 
  .laai  ciaf  hofngbun.   Min'afzaix
 ciu bøeq køq tuix Auciw khix.
   .[ peng!iu+  tui  jidpun+ lai  cia 
  .hongbun  /  min!azai  ciu  boeq  koq
 .tui  !auciuki  ]
   .Our friends came from Japan, 
  .they came here for a visit. 
  .Tomorrow they will leave for 
3.  Chviar  lie  ciofng  goar  ee 
  .zheq  theh^khix,  ar  ciofng lie  ee
  .kngfpid  khngx^teq. [ cvia  li+
  .ciong  goa+  !ezeqtehki  / !a
  .ciong  li+  !e  kng+pidkngteq
    Please take my book away, and
  .leave your fountainpen here.
4.  Khielip!  Lauxsw  laai laq.  Larn
  .tehbøeq  sioxngkhøx.  Taixkef
  .gauzar!  Lauxsw  gauzar!  Chviar
   .ze!   Chviar  hienkhuy  zheq.
  .[ ki+lip  /  lausu  la^ai laq  /  lan+  tehboeq  siongko  /  taikegauza+ /
   lausugauza+ / cvia  ze  /  cvia  hienkuizeq  ]   Stand up!  Teacher
   came here.  We will begin study.  Everybody good morning! 
   Good morning, sir!  Please sit down!  Please open your books.
5.  Goaxbin  teq  løh  ho (=løqho).   Zef  si  løqho ee thvikhix. 
   .Hagsefng lorng mxthafng zhud^khix. . .[ goabin  teq  loqho  /
  . ze  si  loqho  !etviki  /  hagseng  long  !mtangzudki
  .It is raining outside.  This is a raining weather.   All students
  .should stay inside and not go out.

6.  Zuun tehbøeq khuy, lirn tioh 
  kynkirn peq^khylix.  Tioh zuo'ix, 
  mxthafng tuy hiaf poah^løqlaai.
, [ zu^un tehboeqkui  / lin+ tioh kinkin+
 .peqkili  /  tioh  zu+!i  /  !mtang tui hia
 .poahloqlai ]   .The ship will starts, 
 .you must step up in hurry.  Ne
 .careful, not to fall down from 
7.  Larn peq-khylix zunterng, ciaq 
 .bøeq ciah png.   Zunterng u png, 
chviar lirn mxbiern løqlaai theh 
 .piexntofng. [ lan+ peqkili
 .zunteng+  /  ciaq boeq ciah  png
 ./  zunteng+ !u png  /  cvia lin+
 .!mbien loqla^i tehpientong  ] 
  .After we go up to the ship, we 
 .will take lunch.  There is lunch on
 .the ship, please don't come down
.to get luncheon.
8. Chviar ze^teq!   Goar zhutkhix 
 .khvoax lauxsw laai laq, iar bøe.
 .Lausw na iawbøe laai, larn ciu 
  siefn ciah png.  [ cvia  ze teq /
<-(.goa+ zutki+ kvoa+ lausu la^i laq
 ..!iaboe  /  lausu  na  !iauboe la^i  /
 . lan+  ciu sien  ciah  png  ]
  . Please be seated.  I go out to see
 .whether the teacher has arrived or
 .not.  If the teacher does not arrive
 .yet, we take luch first. 
9. Chviar mng, Oong+Siensvy u
 .ti+leq, iar bøo?   Laai ze!  Chviar
 .tarn^cid'e.   Goar khix kiox y 
 . zhud^laai.   Oong Siensviniuu u 
  .ti^leq bøo?  U, yi ia zhud^laai laq.
 .[ cvia mng  /  !o^ongsiensvi  !u  ti leq  !ia bo^o  / lai  ze  /  cvia
 .tan+cid!e  /  goa+  ki+  kio+  !i  zudlai  / !ong  siensviniu^u  !u ti leq bo
 ./  !u  /  !i   !iazudlai  laq  ]
  .May I ask, Mr. Oong is at home or not?   Come in!  Please  ..wait for a while.   I go to call him out.   Is Mrs. Oong at home?
 .Yes, she came out, too. 
10.  Khor^Siensvy, peng'afn!   Siensvy, siensviniuu peng'afn! 
 .Goarn lauxpe kiøx goar laai ka lirn zhefng'afn.   Tøsia! tøsia! 
 . Lirn-taixkef lorng u iofng'iorng^bøo?      U, tøsia lirn ee 
back to Lesson-Search

 .[ ko+siensvi  peng!an  /  siensv
 .siensviniu^u  peng!an  / goan laupe
 .kio+ goa+ lai ka lin+ zeng!an  / tosia  /
 .tosia  / lintaike  long  !u  !iong!iong+
 .bo  /  !u  /  tosia  lin+ !e koansim  ]
 .Mr. Khor, good day!  Sir, Madam  . good day!  My father sent me to 
 .greet you. Thank you!  thank you!
 .Are you all well?  Yes, sir, thanks
 .for your consideration.t 
  . . . Lesson 9
=  Tøe-9  Khøx  =  Toexkao  Khox
. .with liaison symbol (<) for recitation aid
    .   .
 . .  . . . . . . Niaw . .Cat
 . . . . . . . .. 
   . .Niaw ee<hawsviaf cviaa<zhuobi.
    . Voice of cat's cry is very interesting.
Y na<teq<hvoahie, ciu<khuxkhux'
hao, na<teq<siuxkhix ciu< hvoaxhvoax'hao, na<paktor teq<iaw ciu<niauniau'hao. 
When he is happy, he cries with the voice of khuxkhux..., when angry, with hvoahvoa..., when hungry, with niauniau....
 . . . . . . . .. . 
 . . .Niaw aix<ciah<hii kab<baq.  Y
aix<liah<niawzhuo kab<ciaw'ar laai<ciah.
 . . .A cat likes to eat fish and meat.   He likes to catch a rat and a bird to eat.
 . . . .      . . .
 . . .Lie khvoax!   Citciaq<niaw tehbøeq<liah<niawzhuo!  Niawzhuo cviakviaf, ciu<bøeq<zao^khix.   Lie
sviu, y kiarm<zao<øexkhix?
 . . .Look!  this cat is going to catch a rat!   The rat is scared, so wish to run away.  Do you think he can 
run away? 
  . . . Lesson 10
=  Tøe-10 Khøx  =  Toexzap Khox
   with liaison symbol (<) for recitation aid
    .   .
 . .  . . . . . . Ciao . .Bird
 . . . . . . . .. 
   . .Ti<chiuxterng hiar, u<cidciaq<
ciao.  Y kvafnar<khia<ti<y  ee<siu ee<tefngbin.
 . . There on a tree, is a bird.    He
seems to be standing upon his nest.
. . . . . .
 . . Ciao u<nngxky<khaf, ia<u<
nngxee<sit.   Y cingaau<pøef.    Y kuijit ti<khongtiofng teq<pøelaai<
pøekhix. .Uxee<ciao mxna<øe<pøef, ia<øe<chviuozhud cyn<høfthviaf ee<koaf.
 . .A bird has two legs, and also two wings.   He can fly very well.   He fly to-and-fro all day long.   Some birds not only can fly, they can also sing beautiful songs.
. . . . . . 
 . . Søefciaq ee<ciao, larn ka<y kiorzøex<ciaw'ar.  Sof'u ee<ciaw'ar lorng<øexhiao<khyzø<yn<kaki ee<siu.
 . . A little bird, we call him ciaw'ar.   All of small birds can build their own nests.
  . . . . 
Zef si<sviaflaang kax^yn ee leq? 
Bølaang kax^yn.   Yn svy^laai ciu<zaiviar afnnar<khyzø<siu.  Larn korng, zef si<toxngbut ee<pwnleeng.
Who taught them this?    Nobody taught them.   They know 

how to build their nests since they were born.   We say, this is the  instinct of an animal.
 . ..  Lesson 11
= Tøe-11 Khøx = Toex'zab'id Khox
  with liaison symbol (<) for recitation aid
    .   .
 . .  . . . . . . Hii . . Fish
 . . . . . . . ..
   . .Hii si<zuylai ee<toxngbut.  Hii u<cinzøe<ciorng.  Uxee tiaxm<ti< kiamzuie<lai, uxee tiaxm<ti< cviafzuie<lai.  Toaxhae^nih ee<hii si<kiamzuie<hii.  Khøe'ar<lai ee<hii si<cviafzuie<hii.
The fish is an animal in the water.
There are many kinds of fishes.  Some live in salt water, some lives in fresh water.   Fish in the ocean  is a salt-water fish.   Fish in river is a fresh-water fish.
 . . . . 
 . . Larn<laang aix<ciah<hii.    Hibaq høfciah køq<cviaa<u<eng'iorng.  Ciah<hibaq, ia<øe<ho<arn ee<thaunao hør.
. . We people like to eat the fish.  The fresh of fish is good to eat and full of nutrition.   Eating fish makes us clever. 
 . . . .
 . . Larn tiøh<zuo'ix laai<pøfchii<
Taioaan ee<khøezuie zhengkhix.   Afnny, cviafzuie<hii ciaq<øe<
ti<khøe'ar<lai toaxciaq.
. . We must be careful to keep river water of Taiwan clean.   In this way, fresh-water fish can be able to grow up in the river.
     Taioaan tag'sofzai ee<kafngkhao lorng<u<hizuun.  Hizuun si<
  bøeq<zhut'hae liah<hii ee<zuun.   Thøfhae<laang sae<hizuun,
  khix<toaxhae^nih liah<hayhii.  Larn tiøh<kafmsia ui<larn teq<
  siuxkhor ee<thøfhae<laang.
   . There are fishing boats in ports of Taiwan everywhere. 
 Fishing boats are to sail out into the sea for catching fishes. 

 Fishermen sail the fishing boats, 
 .and catch fishes in the 
 .ocean.   We.should appreciate
  them for their endeavor.
. ..  Lesson 12
=  Tøe-12 Khøx = Toex'zabji Khox
    .   .
 . .  . . . . . . Titw . . Spider
 . . . . . . . .. 
   . .U cidciaq titw ka hosiin korng,
  "Chviar lie tuy cit'ee vii ee lauthuy
 .peq-khylaai goarn-taw."
     .A spider told the fly, "Please 
  climb up this round stairs and
  come to my home."
    .Hosiin ixn y korng,  "Tøsia,
  tøsia, goar ka lie søehsia.  Goar na
  peq-khylix lirn-taw, ciu bøethafng
  tuy hiaf køhzaix løq^laai."
    .The fly answered, "Thank you, 
  thank you, I say thanks for you.
  If I climb up to your home, I 
  shall never come down from 
  .   Titw køq korng, "Lie kuijit teq
  pøelaai-pøekhix, iah kvar cviasien
  laq.   Goar ee binzhngg cviasuie
  køq cviasorng, lie nar m løqlaai 
  ciaf hiøhkhuxn?"
   .  .The spider said again, "You fly
  to-and-fro all day long, so must be
  tired.   My bed is pretty and 
  confortable, so why don't you
  come down and take a rest here?"
    .  Hosiin ixn y korng, "Tøsia,
  tøsia, goar ka lie søehsia.  Laang 
  korng, ti titw ee binzhngg^nih 
  khuxn ee laang, mxbad øexthafng
  køq khurnchvie."
   .  .The fly answered him, "Thank
  you, thank you, I say thanks to 
  you.   People say, one who slept 
  on the bed of a spider never could 
  awaiken again." 
   .  .Titw korng, "Hosiin Hviaf, 
  goar aix^lie.   Ti goarn-zhuolai ee 
  khehthviaf^nih, goar u zwnpi 
  cviazøe chvizhaw bøeq chviar^lie.
  Lie  nar m laai ciaf ze?"
    .  .The spider said, "Brother Fly,
  I love you.  In the guestroom of 
  my home, I prepared a lot of nice
  meal to entertain you.   Why don't
  you come and take a seat?"
     . Hosiin ixn y korng,  "Tøsia, 
  tøsia, goar køq ka lie søehsia. 
  Goar ee paktor papar, bøo sviu 
  bøeq ho laang chviar."
  .  . The fly answered him, "Thank
  you, thank you, I say thanks to 
  you again.  My stomach is full, 
  and do not want to entertained."
       .Titw køhzaix tuix hosiin 
  korng, "Hosiin Hviaf, Hosiin Hviaf.  Lie nar øe ciahnih'ientaau?
  Lie kiarm zay, lie ee bagciw vii-kurnkuxn, lie ee sit si hiahniq'ar 
  kym-siaksiag.   Goar theh kviax laai ho lie ciøx, lie ciu thafng
  .  .The spider told the fly again, "Brother Fly, Brother Fly.  How
  handsome you are!    Do you know, your eyes are so round, 
  and your plumes are so shining brilliantly.   I bring a mirror for 
  you to see, so you can understand."
    . Hosiin thviatiøh titw ølør y ientaau, ciu simlai hvoahie, lorng

  bøe kietid tioq'aix tviutii.    Y cid'e
  pøef-jibkhix titu-bang^nih,  ciu 
  cviazoex titw ee armtngx. 
    .The fly having heard the spider 
  praised him handsome, felt very 
  happy, and forgot to be careful.
  As he flew into the spider net, he
  became a dinnar of the spider.
 . Continued study:  Basic Taiwanese Expressions to Remember 
     . . . . . . . . .     Set (1) .Set (2), .Set (3)

"Textbook of Modern Leteral Taiwanese" with English instruction   (2003/6/25)