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Taiwanese Modern Spelling System,TMSS
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____________________General  Explanation
  Alphabetized writing of Taiwanese has been two systems;  one is the Church Romanized Phonetics since one hundred years ago, and the other is the Taiwanese Modern Spelling System (TMSS) used for 60 years.   The former has been used for Taiwanese Bible, and the latter was used for Taiwanese poems and literal articles.   The followings show the difference between them with a same sentence. _
(Church Romanization) Góa ëng sin ê kài-bëng hö lín, chiü-sï lín tioh san-thiàn.  Lín nä án-ni san-thiàn, chèng-lâng chiü chai lín sï góa ê ha'k-seng.
(TMSS) Goar eng syn ee kaebeng ho lirn, ciuxsi lirn tiøh svathviax.  Lirn na afnny svathviax, zernglaang ciu zay lirn si goar ee hagsefng.
  Here, letter usages are almost the same, (it is because they utilize the internationally recognized standard character usage, this same usage in English words are shown in small letters in the following table):
C-R A B Ch Chh - E - G H I J K Kh L M N
TMSS A B C Ch (d) E (f) G H I J K Kh L M N
English calm boat - chief adverb best - good ahead pity inject taking khan lobby madam noon
C-R O. O P Ph - - S T Th U - - - - - -
TMSS O o P Ph (q) (r) S T Th U v W (x) Y Z Zh
English omit demon copy - - star sing motel thyme put - cow - boy Zeitgeist -
    Here,v is a symbolic letter to suggest that the breath must be sent to the nose instead of the mouth.  In the Church Romanization, a small upper(n)is used for this.  Ordinary v may appear in a TMSS word of foreign origin. 
  O-in a document can be added a slash or underline to indicate that that O-is to be pronounced as phonetics [ø].   Such reminders are so printed in articles for children or beginners.  See < Dialects of Taiwan >
    It should be emphasized that the Church Romanization is a system of phonetic symbols that requires a set of tone symbols, while the TMSS is a spelling system like most of western languages, and therefore only alphabetic characters are combined to express every Taiwanese word.
Introduction: TMSS(Taiwanese Modern Spelling System) is a system of Taiwanese
                        words, specially designed for young people and Westerners to speak in
                        Taiwanese language.   It was invented in 1943, and is now the foundation
                        for the MLT (Modern Literal Taiwanese).   Words in TMSS are based on
                        the pronunciation given in the "Dictionary of the Amoy Vernacular" by Rev.
                        W. Campbell in Tainan, 1913.  This was the only Dictionary available in
                        1943.   Those word spellings are still in use in MLT today.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
Special Feature:   TMSS is the "phonemics" of Taiwanese words, rather than some
                        ordinary system of "phonetic symbols".    That is, there are some definite
                        arrangements of letters for certain pronunciation.   This sort of arrangement of
                        letters is called a "phoneme".     People can remember these phonemes and
                        their pronunciation after reading some sentences in MLT, and become able
                        to read swiftly any Taiwanese sentence.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
Reading Guides:    The beginner can acquire the reading power by remembering the
                        following characteristics in TMSS phonemes.
Consonants:â:The consonants in TMSS are pronounced as in original Latin or in general
          European languages, as follows:
b c g h j k l m n p s t ts
Round b c g h j k l m n p s t z
Fricative . ch . . . kh . . . ph . th zh
        ½   Double consonants are only those  ~h (fricative) and the nasal consonants with ~v.
   _  Other combinations are pronounced as a tone definer followed by a consonant, i.e.
            ~ts(=~t's~), ~bc(=~b'c~), ~gh(=~g'h~), ~kt(=~k't~), etc.
Guide 1:  A phoneme of  a Taiwanese word is composed of  Sound and Tone.   Some letters
                 can be recognized as the Tone Definer, and are not phonetically pronounced.

Guide 2:  Apparent Tone Definers are letters d, f, q, r, and x.    In a phoneme, these letters
                  are  without sound  by themselves.

Guide 3:  Most phonemes are constructed by a preceding Consonant and the followed Vowel.
                 Tone Definer is better seen as a part of the Vowel.    Simple Vowels of fundamental
                 tones are:     a, e, i, o, o (a phonetic letter), u, m, ng.  (Attention:  m and ng  which follow
                 directly to a  consonant are Vowels.   They, as well as the letter n, construct rear
                 nasal vowels  when follow some vowels.)
                  The letter o  is only used in textbooks for pronunciation.    In general documents, ordinary.o is used,
             instead. See Note.
Guide 4: A Complex Vowel is pronounced as a combination of Simple Vowels.   These of
                 fundamental tone are:   ai (= a+i), au (= a+u), ia(= i+a), iau (= i+a+u), io (=i+o).
 . . . . . . . . iu (= i+u), oa (=o+a), oai (= o+a+i), oe(=o+e), oe (=o+e or e), and ui (=u+i).

Guide 5:  The letter_h_is a fricative consonant by itself  and also endows the preceding
                 consonant a fricative sound.   These Fricative Consonants are: ch, kh, ph, th, and
 . . . . . . . . zh.

Guide 6:  The letter_v_is a nasal consonant by itself and also nasalizes the preceding
                 consonant to make it by pushing up the breath before giving the vowel sound.
                 These Nasal Consonants are:  cv, chv, gv,hv, kv, khv, pv,phv, sv, tv, thv, zv,
                 and zhv.
 _ _ _ _ _
Guide 7:  The letter_f_is the Tone Definer of  Raised Tones of _a, e, o, o.  In the
                phonemes af, ef,of, of, afm, afn, afng, efng, ofm, and ofng are  Raised
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
Guide 8:  The letter_r_is the Tone Definer of  Pushed-Out Tones of _a, o, o.    Thus, ar,
                or, or, arm, arn, arng, erng, irm, irn, orm, orng, and urn,  are Pushed-
                out Tones.    (attention: _e, i, u  do not use_r _to make Pushed-out Tones, but it
                is used to make it for rear nasal sounds.)
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
Guide 9:  The letter_x_is the Tone Definer of  Depressed Tone of all vowels.   The
                phonemes take the form_~x.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
Guide 10:  The letter_q_is the Tone Definer of  Lower-Stops of all vowels.   The phonemes
                take the form_~q.    Other Lower-Stops are   ~b, ~g, and ~d.
_ _ _ _ _ _
Guide 11:  The letter_h_is the Tone Definer of  Higher-Stops of all vowels.   The phonemes
                take the form_~h.   Other Higher-Stops are   ~p, ~k, and~t¡C _
_ _ _ _ _ _
Guide 12:  The phonemes of Bend Tone are: aa (=a-a), ee (=r-e), ii  (=i-i). oo  (=o-o), oo
                 (=o-o), uu  (=u-u), mm (=m-m), and ngg  (=ng-ng)¡C  _
_ _ _ _ _ _
Guide 13:  The phonemes of  Pushed-Out Tones of e, i, u  are ea (=e/), ie (=i/), ae
                 (=a/i). oae (=oa/i). uo  (=u/), ao  (=a/u)¡C

           From   Simplified   Spelling   to   Exact  Spelling
   1.  A consonant in which both the fricative letter ~h and the nasal symbol v  are neglected is a simplified consonent.    A capital letter is specially used to denote
a simplified consonant.
    2.  An atonal vowel is the vowel proper, which takes the form of  simple vowel without tone specification. 
     3.  A simplified consonant followed by a simplified vowel construct a simple spelling.  For practical merits, the tone definers for stops are generally included in teh simplicied spelling.
     4.  An exact spelling  is the combination of an exact consonant and an exact vowel with clear tone definition.   Thus, an exact spelling is that without the above simplification. 
     5. Comparison of a simplified speliing with its exact spelling is shown in the folowing table:
Simplified Spelling Exact Spelling
TaiOan Taioaan
HoeCia hoefchiaf
LangKeq langkheq
ToHng Tho'hngg
KaTaCia khataqchiaf
KiaLo kvialo
ZanTia Zhanthviaf
Simplified Spelling Exact Spelling
TaiKog Thaekog
KiuMia Kiuomia
TauZa thaozar
CiaMng Chviaf'mng
PiaKoa Pviafkvoaf
TauZai tauxzhaix
TienKog thienkog
     6. A derivative sound in different diarects is generally denoted with an underliine on the standard spelling.   Eg.:
(English) TMSS TMSS with underline sound
(you) lie lie [luo]
(go) khix khix [khux]
(pitty) kholieen kholieen [khøflieen]
(principal) hauxtviuo hauxtviuo [hauxtvior]
(cold dish) lefngpvoaa lefngpvoaa [lyngpvoaa]
(flower garden) hoehngg hoehngg [hoehvuii]
  In the APPLE-II era, a backslash ( \ ) on the vowel letter was used to denote the derivative sound instead of the underline.   The symbolism with a ( ` ) above the vowel seems acceptable, i.e.:  lìe, khìx, khòlieen, hauxtviùo, lèfngpvoaa, hoehñgg, etc.

[French Edition]                                              to  English  Edition
Système Moderne des Mots Taïwanais, TMSS
Introduction:TMSS (le Système Moderne des Mots Taïwanais,  the Taïwanese Modern
                        Spelling System) est un système des mots Taïwanais, spécialement conçu pour
                        que les jeunes et les occidentaux parlent en Taïwanais.  Il a été inventé en 1943,
                        et est maintenant la base pour le MLT (le Litéral Taïwanais Moderne,  the
                        Modern Literal Taiwanese)
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
Usage Spécial:   TMSS est le  "phonémique" des mots Taïwanais, plutôt qu'un système
                        ordinaire "de symboles phonétiques".   C'est-à-dire, qu'il y a des agence-
                        ments qui définissent des lettres pour certaine prononciation.   Ce type
                        d'agencement de lettres s'appelle un "phoneme" (élément sonore du langage
                        parlé, considéré comme une unité distinctive).  Les gens peuvent se rappeler
                        de ces phonèmes et de leur prononciation après lecture de quelques phrases
                        dans le MLT, et par la suite devenir capable de lire courament toute phrase
                        de Taïwanais.
Consonne: Les consonnes dans le TMSS sont prononcées comme dans le Latin original
                 ou dans les langages Européens  généraux:
b c g h j k l m n p s t ts
Round b c g h j k l m n p s t z
Conflicative . ch . . . kh . m n ph . th zh
             Les consonnes doubles sont seulement les ~h (fricatives) et les consonnes nasales
  avec ~v.    Les autres combinaisons sont prononcées comme Determinant de Ton et
  une consonne.      ~ts(=~t's~), ~bc(=~b'c~), ~gh(=~g'h~), ~kt(=~k't~), etc.
Guide 1: Un phonème d'un mot Taïwanais se compose de SON et TON.   Quelques lettres
                 peuvent être reconnues comme le DÉTERMINANT de TON, et ne sont pas
                 phonétiquement prononcées.

Guide 2: La tonalité apparante des Déterminants de Tons sont les lettres d, f, q, r, et x.
                 Dans un phonème, ces lettres sont muettes par elles-même.

Guide 3: La plupart des phonèmes sont construits précédés d'une Consonne et suivis d'une.
                 voyelle.   Le Déterminant de Ton est mieux perçu comme une partie de la
                 voyelle.  Les Voyelles Simples de ton fondamental sont:  a, e, i, o, u, m, ng.
                 (Attention: m et ng  qui suivent directement une consonne sont des voyelles,
  .. . . . . . . m et ng ainsi que la lettre n, forment des voyelles nasales arrière quand elles
                 suivent certaines voyelles.)

Guide 4:_Une Voyelle Complexe est prononcée comme une combinaison de voyelles simples.
                 Les Voyelles Complexe de ton fondamental sont:  ai (= a+i), au (= a+u), ia (= i+a),
      . . . .    iau (= i+a+u), io (=i+o), iu (= i+u), oa (=o+a), oai (= o+a+i), oe (=o+e), oe
                 (=o+e ou e), et ui (=u+i).

Guide 5:  Le lettre_h_est une Consonne Fricative par elle-même et dote également d'un son
                 fricatif la consonne qui l'a précède.  Ces Consonnes Fricatives sont: ch, kh, ph,
  _ _ . . __ th, etzh.

Guide 6:  Le lettre_v_est une Consonne Nasale par elle-même et nasalise également la
                 consonne qui la précède, prononcée en poussant le souffle vers le haut, avant de
                 de donner le son de la voyelle.  Ces Consonnes Nasales sont: cv, chv, gv, hv,
     . . . .     kv, khv, pv,phv, sv, tv, thv, zv, et zhv.
 _ _ _ _ _
Guide 7:  La lettre_f_est le Déterminant des Ton Élevés de a, e, o, o.   Dans les phonèmes
  . . . .   af, ef,of, of, afm, afn, afng, efng, ofm, et ofng  sont des Tons Élevés.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
Guide 8:  La lettre_r_est le Déterminant de Ton  des Tons Poussés de a, o, o.    Ainsi, ar,
  . .         or, or, arm, arn, arng, erng, irm, irn, orm, orng, et urn  sont des Tons
              Poussés.  (Attention: _e, i, u  n'emploient pas _r _pour créér des Tons Poussés,
              mais il est utilisé pour créér les nasaux arriere.)
__ _ _ _ _ _ _
Guide 9:  Le lettre_x_est le Déterminant de Ton  des Tons Relachés de toutes les voyelles.
                Les phonèmes prennent la forme ~x.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
Guide 10: La lettre_q_est le Déterminant de Ton  des Tons Bas-Court de toutes les
                voyelles.   Les phonèmes prennent la forme ~q.    D'autres déterminant de ton  des
                tons bas-court sont   ~b, ~g, et ~d.
_ _ _ _ _ _
Guide 11:  Le lettre_h_est le Déterminant de Ton  des Tons Haut-Court de toutes les
                voyelles.   Les phonèmes prennent la forme  ~h.     D'autres déterminant de ton  des
                tons haut-court sont   ~p, ~k, et ~t¡C _
_ _ _ _ _ _
Guide 12:  Le phonème des Tons Courbés sont: aa(<- a), ee (<- e), ii  (<- i). oo  (<- o), oo
                 (<- o), uu  (<- u), mm   (<- m), et ngg  (<- ng)¡C  _
_ _ _ _ _ _
Guide 13:   Le phonème des Tons Poussés de  e, i, u  sont  ea (<- e), ie (<- i), ae
                 (<- ai), oae (<- oai), uo  (<- u), ao  (<- au)¡C_ _ _ _ _ _

Taiwanese Modern Spelling System,  TMSS                                                  January, 2000 _