Church Romanized Writing vs Modern Spelling of Taiwanese Words

_ _ _ _ _ _ to  What is the difference ?       to Practical Hints  _ to EDUTECH home-page
             _   to How to Rewrite CRW Sentence into Modern Literal Taiwanese ?

Church Romanized Writing (CRW)
is the phonetics for individual Chinese (Han) character.
This was first defined by Mateo Ricci around 1600, and revised later by many evangelists, i.e. Nicolas Trigault (1625), W.H.Medhurst (1832), T.V.N.Talmage & E.Doty (~1870), Carstaires Douglas (1899), William Campbell(1913), and finally by Rev.Thomas Barclay for spoken Taiwanese, mainly for translating the Bible.   The Prtsbyterian Church of Taiwan urges her
adherents to learn this in order to revive the forgotten mother tongue from Barclay's Bible.
Taiwanese Modern Spelling System (TMSS)
is a set of  spoken Taiwanese words in Latin spelling.
This was first defined by several students in Tainan in 1943. _ A constant revision and practice in writing articles was made by Liim Keahiong who is a member of that group of students.
This system developed into a sentence style called the Modern Literal Taiwanese (MLT) and has survived through a half of century when Taiwanese language and her writing was severely forbidden by the government to destroy the identity of Taiwanese people. 

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  Comparison of CRW and TMSS

Consonant characters tonic letters are b, c, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, s, t d, f, q, r, x are atonioc letters, not used as consonants 
Tone differentiation with tone symbols embedded in the word spel-
ling or with atonic characters
Tone of the preceding syllable write the original tone of that Han-character. write the actual tone of that syllable as spoken
Multi-syllable word phonetics of individual Han-
character, linked with (-)'s.
spelling as a whole word
Frontal nasal sound a last (n) after the phonetics  a (v) in front of the vowel
Different sounds of "o" lax vowel "o" as o and tense vowel "o"  as o.(o-dot)  lax vowel "o" as o (or any 
way)*, tense vowel as o
Sound can be either e or oe written as either e or oe a special spelling as oe
Differentiating "c" and "ts" no;  always "ch, chh"  yes;  as "c, ch"  and  "z, zh"
*   In ordinary MLT-writing, "o" for both o and o  makes little confusion.
_ _
Wait till the temporary charcter "?" is substitued by the romanized vowels with tone symbols. 

_ _ _ _ _ _ _  Practical Hints to Get TMSS From CRW
 _ _ _ _  1st tone,2nd tone,   3rd tone, 4th tone,5th tone,7th tone,   8th tone
 (b, p, ph;   d, t, th;   g, k, kh;    j, l, m, n, s)
                               Same consonants
(b, p, ph;   d, t, th;   g, k, kh;    j, l, m, n, s)
                             Same consonants
(chi,chhi) (cha,chha; che,chhe; chu,chhu; cho,chho)         Different consonants (ci,chi) (za,zha; ze,zhe; zu,zhu; zo,zho)
                       Different consonants
1-st  tone  Raised tone
(a, i, u, e, o, o.)               No tone symbol  (af, y, w, ef, of, of)-f. y, w
(ia, oa, am, an, ang, iam, iang, oan)  a (iaf, oaf, afm, afn, afng, iafm, iafng, oafn) af
(ai, oai, ui, im, in)   _  _   (oe, eng, ian) e (ay,oay,uy,ym,yn) y  _   (oef, efng, iefn)ef
(om, ong, iong) o  __ (au, iau, iu, un) u (ofm, ofng, iofng)of  _(aw, iaw, iw, wn)w
2-nd  tone Pushed-ou  tone
|, í|, ú, é, ó, ó.)Tone symbol  / (ar, ie, uo, ea, or, or)-r. ea, ie, uo
(iá, oá, ám, án, áng, iám, iáng, oán)    á| (iar, oar, arm, arn, arng, iarm, iarng, oarn) ar
i, oái, úi, í|m, í|n) í| á|i (ae, oae, uie, irm, irn)  ae, ie, irm
(oé, éng, ián) é|m, óng, ióng)   ó| (oea, erng, iern)ea, erm   (orm, orng, iorng)or
u, iáu, iú, ún)ú| á|u (ao, iao, iuo, urn) ao, uo, urm
3-rd  tone Depressed  tone
|, ì|, ù|, è, ò|, ò.)Tone symbol ` (ax, ix, ux, ex, ox, ox) -x
(ià|, oà|, à|m, à|n, à|ng, ià|m, ià|ng, oà|n) à| (iax,oax, axm,axn,axng, iaxm,iaxng,oaxn)  ax
(oè, èng, ià|n)   è||i,oà|i,ù|i,ì|m,ì|n)  ì  à| (oex, exng, iexn)ex(aix, iaux, iux, uxn)  ix
(ò|m, ò|ng, iò|ng)ò|  (à|u, ià|u, iù, ùn,)ù| à|u (oxm, oxng, ioxng)ox  (aux, iaux, iux, uxn)ux
4-th  tone Lower  Stop 
(ah, ih, uh, eh, oh, o.h) Tone symbol   h (aq, iq, uq, eq, oq, oq) -q
(iah,oah,ap,at,ak,iap,iak,oat)ah,ap,at,ak (iaq,oaq,ab,ad,ag,iab,iag,oad) aq,ab,ad,ag
 (aih, oaih, uih, ip, it)  ih,ip,it (aiq, oaiq, uiq, ib, id)  iq,ib,id
 (oeh, ek, iat)    eh,ek,at (oeq, eg, ied)  eq,eg,ed
(oh, op, ok, iok)oh, op,ok (ob, og, iog) ob,og
(auh, iauh, iuh, ut)uh,ut (auq, iauq, iuq, ud)  uq,ud
5-th  tone Bend  tone
|, î|, û|, ê|, ô|, ô.) Tone symbol  ^ (aa, ii, uu, ee, oo, oo) Double vowel
(iâ|, oâ|, â|m, â|n, â|ng, iâ|m, iâ|ng, oâ|n)â| (iaa, oaa, aam,aan,aang, iaam,iaang,oaan)aa
|i, oâ|i, ûi, î|m, î|n) î|, â|i, ûi (aai,oaai,uii,iim,iin) ii,aai
(oê|, ê|ng, iâ|n)ê|(ô||m, ô|ng, iô||ng)ô (oee, eeng, ieen)  ee (oom, oong, ioong) oo
|u, iâ|u, iû, ûn,) û|, â|u (aau, iaau, iuu, uun) uu,aau
7-th  tone Fundamental  tone
|, ï|, ü|,ë|, ö|, ö.)          Tone symbol - (a, i, u, e, o, o)   Simple vowel
(iä|, oä|, ä|m, ä|n, ä|ng, iä|m, iä|ng, oä|n) ä| (ia,oa,am,an,ang,iam,iang,oan) a
 (oë|,ë|ng,iä|n)ë||i,oä|i,ü|i,ï|m,ï|n) ï,oä|i,ü|i (oe, eng, ien) e (ai,oai,ui,im,in) i
(ö|m, ö|ng, iö|ng)ö| |u, iä||u, iü|, ü|n,)ü|, ä|u (om, ong, iong) o (au, iau, iu, un)   u
8-th  tone Higher Stop 
(a'h, i'h, u'h, e'h, o'h, o.'h) Tone symbol   'h (ah, ih, uh, eh, oh, oh)-h
(ia'h,oa'h,a'p,a't,a'k,ia'p,ia'k,oa't)a'h,a'p,a't,a'k (iaq,oaq,ab,ad,ag,iab,iag,oad) ah,ap,at,ak
(ai'h, oai'h, ui'h, i'p, i't) i'h,i'p,i't (aih, oaih, uih, ip, it)  ih,ip,it
(oe'h, e'k, ia't)e'h,e'k,a't (oeh, ek, iet)  eh,ek,et
(o'h, o'p, o'k, io'k)o'h, o'p,o'k (op, ok, iok) op,ok
(au'h,iau'h,iu'h,u't)u'h,u't (auh, iauh, iuh, ut)  uh,ut

July, 1999 by Liim Keahioong  _   _   _   _   _   _  Revised with tone symbols in January, 2000