Traditional Grammar of Taiwanese Words
台語語辭的文法分類
                                 台語現代文的前景   EDUTECH 首頁
A.
前言 Preface       B. 基本詞類 Primary Parts of Speech  
(1) 名詞
  (2) 代名詞  (3) 動詞  (3a) 助動詞   (4) 形容詞   (4a) 數詞   (5) 副詞   (6) 介詞  (7) 連詞   (8) 助詞   (9) 歎詞    D. 組合辭
A. 前言 Preface

  .
  在歐美語言的傳統文法觀念裡,語辭依照它的詞類,適宜排列來形成文章;而這些語辭,常有特定形態以供辨認其詞類之外,也依照數時變化而作適當的形態變化。 
  In the traditional grammar of Wester languages, words are arranged to make a sentence according to their parts of speech;  and those words which show special forms for their parts of speech, and may change their forms according to the rules of declension and conjugation. 
  .
    在漢語系語言中,情況卻完全不同。 一個語辭,不作任何的形態變化,而往往單由其在文中的位置而被解釋為某一詞類。 
  In languages in connection with Chinese, however, the situation is quite different.    A given word will never change its form, and its part of speech is decided by the position in the sentence. 
  .
   有一些語辭卻並不容易被當為兩種詞類應用,這時如果由正常的一類改用為另一類時,整個章就成為不合常理的說法,而無法受人理解。 有時,一個語辭,在前冠上一個介詞(前置詞)或在辭尾套加一個接危辭,就能變換為另一詞類。 這些問題就成為台語文法的研討主題了。 
  Some words do not easily change their parts of speech, nad the whole sentence becomes nonsence if the word is misplaced at the position of other part.   Sometimes, a word may change its part of speech by adding a preposition or a suffix.   These problems consturct the may topics for Taiwanese grammar. 

B. 基本詞類 Primary Parts of Speech
  .
  一個語辭在文章中的文法功用,以它的詞類來辨別。 語辭的詞類,大致有下列幾種:
  .
  (1) 名詞   (2) 代名詞   (3) 動詞   (4) 形容詞   (5) 副詞   (6) 介詞   (7) 連詞   (8) 助詞   (9) 歎詞
  .
   在此,助動詞 被包括在動詞之內,而 數詞 被包括在形容詞之內。 這些詞類,以顯著的台語語辭實例分類說明之下。 

   The grammatical usage of a word in the sentence is recognized by th part of speeech.   There are following nine kinds of such parts of speech:
   (1) Noun    (2) Pronoun    (3) Verb    (4) Adjective   (5) Adverb  (6) Preposition and  Postposition 
(7) Conjunction   (8) Auxiliary   (9) Interjection
   Here, Auxiliary Verb is included in (3) Verb, and Numeral in (4) Adjective.    These parts of speech are explained with notable examples from the Taiwanese vocabulary.

C1. 名詞 Noun
  .
定義:所有 人、地、事、物等,實體的名稱。 分類之,如下: 

  Definition:  Names of all objects including those of people, place, matter, and thing, i.e., 
(1) 專有名詞 
    (無限數目)
人名: Liim Keahioong, Tvi Sengkofng, Lincoln, John 
地名: Taipag, Washinton, Paris, Tangkviaf, Liukiuu, Polie
書名: Mafthaix-Hok'ym-Toan, Luxnguo, Taioaan-Lun
時代: Binkog, Konggoaan, Bengtiaau, Zusixn-Sitai
國家種族: Taioaan, Bykog, Holaan, Jidpurn, Goanzuxbiin
團體名: Iogteg Kikimhoe, Kitokkaux, Sengkofng Taixhak
林繼雄,鄭成功,林肯,約翰; 台北,華盛頓,巴黎,東京,琉球,埔里; 馬太福音傳,論語,台灣論
民國,公元,明朝,資訊時代
台灣,美國,荷蘭,日本,原住民
育德基金會,基督教,成功大學
(2) 普通名詞 
   (無限數目) 
個體: laang, ciao, hoef, zhao, haghau, lauxsw, svoaf
質料: zuie, hoea, kym, thiq, bie, beqar, hanzuu, kamciax
集合體: kokkaf, siaxhoe, hagsefng, angbor, chincviaa
人,鳥,花,草,學校,老師,山;  水,火,金,鐵,米,麥仔,番薯,甘蔗;國家,社會,學生,夫妻,親戚
(3) 抽象名詞
   (無限數目)
無形物: zengsiin, zaileeng, hokkhix, khofbun, iuchiuu
性質狀態: zhongbeeng, guihiarm, sarnchiaq, iofngzoxng
動作行為: lolek, hurntox, zoan'id, giefnkiux, khvoarpvi,
  liauxlie, zhay'iong
精神,才能,福氣,苦悶,憂愁
聰明,危險,貧窮,勇壯
努力,奮鬥,專一,研究,看病,料理,採用 
 
(1) Exclusive Nown
     (limitless)
Name of person
Name of place
Name of book
Name of era
Name of Nation
Name of corporation
Liim K.H., Cheng Chengkung, Lincoln, John;
Taipei, Washinton, Paris, Tokyo, Loochoos, Polie;
Mthew's Gospel, Analects of Confucius, the Taiwan;
Minkou, A.D., Min Dynasty, the Era of Information;
Taiwan, America, Dutch, Japan, Taiwanese Aborigines;
Edutech Foundation, Christianity, Chengkung University
(2) Ordinary Noun
     (limitless)
Individual
Commodity
Collective
person, bird, flower,grass, school, mountain;
water, fire, gold, iron, rice, wheat, potato, sugar cane;
nation, society, student, husband & wife, relatives
(3) Abstract noun
     (limitless)
Formless
Character & State
Motion
spirit, talent, fortune, agony, grief;
cleverness, danger, poverty, health;
endeavor, struggle, specialty, research, diagnosis, treatment, appointtment
-

C2. 代名詞 Pronoun.
定義:用來代替特定名詞的語辭。 分類之,如下: 

  Definition:  Words that substitue names of given objects, i.e., 
(1) 稱謂代名詞 
  (有限數目) 
自稱: goar, goarn, larn 
對稱: lie, lirn
他稱: y, yi, yn
統稱: taixkef, pizhuo, hoxsiong
複稱: goarn-taixkef, larn-taixkef, lirn-taixkef, yn-taixkef,,  larn-hoxsiong, goar-kaki, lie-kaki, y-kaki, yi-kaki
我,阮,咱
你,恁
伊,她,尹
大家,彼此,互相;阮大家,咱大家,恁大家,咱互相
我家己,你家己,伊家己,.
(2) 指示代名詞
        (有限數目)
近稱: zef, cit'ee, ciah'ee, ciaf, afnny, citkhoarn, citteq, citboea
遠稱: hef, hit'ee, hiah'ee, hiaf, hitkhoarn, hitteq, hitboeq
不定稱: uxee, uxkoar
這,這個,這些,此,如此,這款,這塊,這尾; 那,那個,彼,那款; 有些,有寡
(3) 疑問代名詞 symmih, sviafmih, sviaflaang, tofui  (有限數目) 什麼,甚麼,甚人,何位
(4) 指前代名詞 ee (如:khaq-hor ee,tegpiet ee),+ee (有限數目) 的(較好的,特別的),者 
 
(1) Appelative Pronoun
                (limitted)
Self
Partner
Others
General
Complex
I, we, we
you, you
he, she, they
all, each other
all of us, all of us, all of you, all of them, muyself, yourself, himself, herself 
(2) Indicative pronoun
               (limitted)
Near
Far
Uncertain
this, this, these, here, thus, like this, this one, this (fish);
that, that, those, there, like that, that one, that (fish);
someone, a few (a little)
(3) Interrogative pronoun     (limitted) what, what, who, where    (limitted)
(4) Succesive pronoun     (limitted) one (eg. the better one, the special one), what 
         =

C3 動詞 Verb
  .
定義:用來說出及於外物之行動(外動詞),僅止於本身的動作(自動詞),或說出是非關係(是非動詞)的語辭。 即: 

 Definition:  Words for action (to others), conduct (of the self), and the relationship of yes-no.  E,g:
(1) 外動詞
         (無限數目)
theh, thviaf, khvoax, phorhoai, katng, ciah, liah, kiax, zay, sngx, giaa, aix, ngrbang 拿,聽,看,破壞,剪斷,吃,捉,寄,植,算,扛,愛,向望
(2) 自動詞
         (無限數目)
通常動詞: thiaux, kviaa, poef, hoaq, ze, iotang, poah 
情意動詞: hvoahie, oarnthaxn, chiox, khaux, iubun, zay
跳,行,飛,喊,坐,搖動,跌
歡喜,怨嘆,笑,哭,憂悶,知
(3) 是非動詞
         (有限數目)
決定性: si, mxsi, tioh, mxtioh, 
推較性: chinchviu, boo-chinchviu, nar 
是,不是,對,不對
親像,無親像,似
 
(1) Transitive verb
               (limitless)
take, hear, look, distroy, carve, eat, catch, mail, plant, count, take, love, hope
(2) Intransitive verb
               (limitless)
general verb
emotional verb
jump, walk, fly, shout, sit, vibrate, fall;
joy, resent, laugh, weep, fear, know
(3) Affirmative -Negative verb
                (limitted)
determinative verb
comparative verb
is (are, am), do
like, seem, resemble 
    

C3a. 助動詞 Auxiliary Verb
  .
定義:用來賦予動詞有時性,意志,欲望,可能性,完成性等之語辭。即: 

 Definition: Words to bestow following verbs concrete time, will, desire, possibility, completion, etc.
助動詞
     (有限數目)
可能性: oextaxng, oe, u-khofleeng; boextaxng, boe
可准性: oexsae, thafng; boexsae, mxthafng
完成性: u, bad;  boo, mxbad
持續性: teq; boteq
被動性: siu
意志性: boeq, aix, aeboeq; m, bo'aix
必須性: tioh, tioqaix
禁絕性: maix
未來性: tehboeq, uxboeq;  boboeq, boo-tehboeq, m
繼承性: ciaq, ciu
或然性: kvafu, kvafboeq, kvaf'm, kvaf'boo, kvar-boboeq
能可,會,有可能; 未可,未
能使,可; 未使,不可
有,曾; 無,不曾
在; 無在

要,愛,愛要; 不,無愛 
須,須愛

將要,有要; 無要,無將要,不 
才,就
敢有,敢要,敢不,敢無,敢無要 
 
Auxiliary verb
             (limitted)
possibility
allowability
completion
continuation
passiveness
will
neccesity
prohibition
future
successive
probable
able to, can, with possibility; unable to. cannot 
allowed to, can; unallowed to, never
have, ever; haven't, never
being; not being 
receive
want, like to, want to; unwilling to, not willing to
must, need
never
will (shall), prepared to; don't, not prepared to, don't
then to, then
seem, likely to 
    
C4. 形容詞 Adjective
  .
定義:用來指明名詞的性質,狀態和地位的語辭。 即: 
 Definition:  Words for appointing the property, state and rang of the noun.  E.g;:
特殊規定:在現代拼字文中,名詞前的形態形容詞,必須以連符(-)連到後面的名詞。 
 Regulation: In MLT/TMSS, the apparent adjectives should link to the directly followed noun with a hyphen (-). 
(1) 形態形容詞        (無限數目) 性質: hor, bae, suie, syn, hofkhvoax, iofngkarm, gaau
形態: ciafm, koaan, oea, puii, toa, sior, toaxhaxn 
顏色: aang, legseg, chiefnlek, cyseg, ngg, ngkym-seg
程度: zhokib, kogvar, iusiux 
好,壞,美,新,好看,勇敢,棒;尖,高,矮,肥,大,小,大漢;紅,綠色,淺綠,紫色,黃,黃金色;初級,高雅,優秀
(2) 指示形容詞
         (有限數目)
近程: cit'ee, ciah'ee
遠程: hit'ee, hiah'ee
不定: uxee, iuxkoar, bofbor
統括: sofu, itzhex, toa-poxhun 
逐一: muie, muy'ee, tag'ee
別外: padee, kithvaf, 
這個,這些
那個,那些
有些,有寡,某某
所有,一切,大部份
每,每個,各個
別的,其他
(3) 疑問形容詞
         (有限數目)
普通: symmih', sviafmih', sviaflaang, tofui, tangsii', tor
數量: joazoe, joaxtoa, kuy'ee, kuynaxee, kuytex, 
  kuyciaq
什麼,甚麼,甚人的,何位,何時; 偌多,偌大,幾個,幾偌個,幾塊,幾隻
 
(1) apparent adjective
               (limitless)
property
form
color
degree
good, bad, beautiful, new, pretty, brave, nice
sharp, high, short, fat, large, small, tall
red, green, pale green, violet, yellow, golden
elementary, elegant, superior
(2) Indicative adjective
                (limitted)
near
far
indefinite
inclusive
each one
another
this these
that, those
some, a little, a certain
every, all, majority of 
each, every,
another, other
(3) Interrogative adjective
                (limitted)
general
quantity
what, what, sho, shere, when, which 
how many, how large, how many
    

C4a. 數詞 Numeral
  .
定義: 指出物之數量或分量之語辭。 

 Definition: Words that defining the quantity of things.
數詞
   (有限數目)
數目: id, ji, safm, sux, gvor,liok, chid pad, kiuo, sip,...
順序數: toexid, toexji, toexsvaf, toexsix, toexgo, 
 toexlak, toexchid, toexpoeq, toexkao, toexzap,...
個數: cidee, nngxee, sva'ee, sie'ee, goxee, lag'ee, chit'ee,
  poeh'ee, kawee, zab'ee,..;  cidtex, nngxtex,..;  cidciaq,
  nngxciaq, svaciaq, .. 
一,二,三,四,五,六,七,八,九,十,..; 第一,第二,第三,第四,第五,第六,第七,第八,第九,第十,..;  一個,兩個,三個,四個,五個,六個,七個,八個,九個,十個,..;  一塊,兩塊,..
 
Numeral
        (limitted)
number
ordinal
number of article
one,two,three,four,five,six,seven,eight,nine,ten,... 
first,second,third,fourth,fifth,sixth,seventh,eighth,nineth,tenth,.. 
one piece, two pieces, etc.
    
C5. 副詞 Adverb
  .
定義:用來修飾動詞,形容詞或另一副詞的語辭。即: 
 Definition:  Words to modify verb, adjective or other adverb.  (English translation below may be
          not correctly corresponding to the adverb word.) 
(1) 時間副詞
       (有限數目)
過去: yzeeng, khahzar, kofzar, yzar, lawzar, zengkefng, koeakhix, hitsii, ykefng
現在: tvaf, citmar, citsii, twtuo
將來: y'au, cionglaai, kim'au
不定: sisioong, uxsii, efng'oarn
以前,較早,古草,以早,老早,曾經,過去,那時,已經
今,即碼,這時,抵抵 
以後,將來,今後
時常,有時,永遠
(2) 方位副
       (有限數目)
方向: tafng, tangpeeng, say, saipeeng, laam, lampeeng, pag, pakpeeng
方位: thauzeeng, auxbin, auxpiaq, cviarpeeng, torpeeng, terngbin, exbin, laixbin, goaxbin, goaxkhao, tiongkafn,  hitpeeng, khaq-koaan-hiaf, khaq-ke-hiaf, ..
東,東旁,西,西旁,南,南旁,北,北旁;  頭前,後面,後壁,右旁,左旁,上面,下面,內面,外面,外口,中間,那旁,較高那,較低那. 
(3) 性態副
         (有限數目)
 khaq-hor, khaq-bae, suxsit, boviar, boo-twhor, tekkhag, khaksit,  較好,較壞,事實,無影,的確,確事 
(4) 數次副詞
        (有限數目)
zaesafm, ofng'orng, itlut, cidpae, kapoe 再三,往往,一律,一次,加倍
(5) 定副詞 pexngboo, sengjieen, khaksixn, boo-itteng, 並無,誠然, 確信,無一定
(6) 比較副詞 khaq-, zoex-, khaq-toa, khaq-cior, khaq-sior, zoex-hor 較,最,較大,較小,較少,最好
(7) 疑問副詞 afnnar, juhoo, kiarm, kiafm'u, sviafkhoarn 如何,如何,豈,豈有,甚款
 
(1) Time adverb
                 (limitted)
past
present
future
uncertain
before, early, old time, before, earlier, ever, past,
that time, already;  now, present, this time, just;
later, future, from now on
always, sometimes, for ever
(2) Direction adverb
                (limitted)
diquarter
direction
east, eastern, west, western,south, southern, north, northern;   front, rear, back, right, left, upper, lower, inside, outside, exterior, middle, that side, higher part, lower part 
(3) Character adverb
                (limitted)
better, worse, in fact, untrue, inconveniently, truely, certainly 
(4) Occurance adverb
                (limitted)
repeatedly, occationally, uniformly, onece, in double
(5) Conclusive adverb never, truly, believed, not certainly
(6) Comparison adverb more, most, greater, less, smaller, best, 
(7) Interogative adverb how, how, possibly, ever, however
    

C6. 介詞 Preposition and Postposition

定義:用來指出語辭間關係的語辭。 分類之,如下: 

  Definition:  Words that define relationship of other words.
(1) 時地介詞  ti, tuix, tuy, zu, iuu, hioxng, kaux, zuxcioong 在,對,從,自,由,向,到,自從
(2) 原因介詞 in'ui, sofie 因為,所以
(3) 方法介詞 eng, cuaux, pie, pykaux, laai, khix, kantvaf, togtok 用,照,比,比較,來,去,干單,獨獨
(4) 領間介詞 ee  
(5) 後接辭 -terng, -e, -tiofng, -lai, -goa, -khaf, -pvy, -zeeng, -kafn, 上,下,中,內,外,腳,邊,前,間 
 
(1) Time-place prepositiont
                (limitted)
at, to, from, from, pass, toward, till, beginning from
(2) Indicative preposition because, therefore
(3) Interrogative preposition using, as, comparing, in comparison, then begin, then do, only, alone 
(4) Succesive preposition of
(5) Postposition above, below, inside, outside, under, side, before, between
         =

C7 連詞 Conjunction
  .
定義: 用來指出語辭與語辭,句與句,節與節之間連絡關係的語辭。 分類之,如下: 

  Definition:  Words that show relation between a word and a word, a phrase and a phrase, 
or a clause and a clause.
(1) 並列連詞  kab, koq, jixchviar, ykip, ia, ma      (有限數目) 和,又,而且,以及,也,亦
(2) 選擇連詞 iafsi, mxsi .. ciuxsi, naxboo, na .. ciu 或是,不是...就是,若無,若..就
(3) 承接連詞 sofie, ciu, ciuxsi, zu-afnny, ciu thangzay, usi 所以,就,就是,自如此,就可知,於是
(4) 轉折連詞 mxkuo, mxkoq, taxnsi, hohorng, putliau, hoafntngr, sviaflaang zay, boo-tekkhag, khioksi  不過,不復,但是,何況,不料,反轉,甚人知,無的確
(5) 因果連詞 in'ui .. sofie, goanlaai, inzhuo, iu'uu, tiesuo  因為..所以,原來,因此,由於,致使 
(6) 假設連詞 kafsuo, na, naxsi korng, jukor, cy'iaux 假使,若,若是講,如果,只要
(7) 比較連詞 chinchviu, nar, khofpie, kvafnar, putjuu korng, tefng'uu, ciaoviu 親像,如,可比,敢如,不如講,等於,照樣 
 
(1) Lining-up conjunction (limitted) and, and also, what is more, and next, too, too 
(2) Selecting conjunction or, not .. then, if not, if ... then
(3) Succesive conjunction so, then, it's then, owing to this, thus to be seen, accordingly 
(4) Contrary conjunction but, but, but, however, unexpectedly, or to say, in contrary, who knows, it could be, contrarily
(5) Causality conjunction because .. so, to begin with, owing to this, if, only if
(6) Hypothetical conjunction for instance, if, if to say so, in casxe that, only if 
(7) Comparative conjunction as it were, as if, as an example, like, in another word, equivaletly, as in acoordance to, 
         =

C8 助詞 Auxiliary
  .
定義:用來表現出說話的神情態度的語辭。其必須連在名詞或動詞之尾者,稱為接尾助辭。  即: 

 Definition:  Words to demonstrate the mood and sensation in the speech.  The partial word which must suffix to a noun or a verb for the same effects is called Auxiliary Suffix. 
(1) 名詞接尾助辭 -ar, +niq, +aq 仔,裡,啊
(2) 動詞接尾助辭 -teq, -tioh,-kaux, -laai, -khix, -loqlaai, -loqkhix, -khylaai, -khylix, -cviuxlaai, -cviuxkhix, -jiblaai, -jibkhix, -zhutlaai, -zhutkhix, -zhud,  -jip, -khuy,
-sie, -hor, -liao, -tiaau, -tiau, +boo? +boe? -boo, -mxzay, -mxtioh, -boexkaux, -boexlaai, -boexkhix, -boexzhud, -boexjip, -boexkhuy, -bosie, -mxhor, -boliao, -boextiaau, -boextiau
 得,著,到,來,去,落來,落去,起來,起去,上來,上去,入來,入去,出來,出去,出,入,開,死,好,了,住,掉,無? 未? 無,不知,不著,未到,未來,未去,未出,未入,未開,無死,不好,無了,未住,未掉 
(3) 一般助  laq, neq, ox, maq, oo, hvor, leq, niq, naxtvia  啦,咧,噢,麼,哦,哦,呢,哩,而已
 
 (1) Auxiliary noun suffix (2) Auxiliary verb suffix (3) General suffix
    
C9. 歎詞 Interjection

定義:獨立表達驚訝,讚歎,傷感,痛惜,歡笑,譏諷,憤怒,鄙斥,問安,應諾等表情的語辭。 

  Definition:  Word by itself expressing a sentimental feeling.
(1) 一般歎詞 Ox, Ah, Ae, Hngr, Ai'ah, Hoo? Hvaa? Ha, Hea,
Hee? Oaa, Hahaa, Oaqhar, Afnnar? Symmih! Sviar?  Sviaflaang? Tvaf, Hor! Zharm! Hveq? Si! Tioh, Mxtioh! Chvrar, Zarn!
喔,啊,噯,哼,唉呀,呵?哼?哈,嘿,嘿?娃哇,哈哈,嗢哈,怎樣?什麼!甚?甚人? 今,好!慘!是!是!
對,不對!請,讚! 
(2) 呼叫辭 Oea! Oee! Hae! Hei!  Siaolieen+ee! Oong+ee! Koniuu! Siensvy! Lauxsw! Liim Kaosiu! Siofciar!
Laau Bogsw! Cia Ciongkwn, Gaan+Siensvy!
Lie! Cit'ui peng'iuo! Cit'ui Thaethaix!
喂!唯!嗨!嘿!少年的!王的!
姑娘!先生!老師!林教授!小姐!
劉牧師!謝將軍!顏先生!
你!這位朋友!這位太太!
 
(1) Ordinary interjection Oh, Ah, Ae, H'm (Hem, Hum), Aha, Ha, 
Ha?, Ha, Hah, Ha? Ha, Haha, Haha, How? 
What! What? Who? Now, Good! Terrible, He, Yah! 
Yes, Wrong! Please, Nice!
(2) Accosting Hey (Ay,Aye), Hallo, Hi, Hey:  Young one, Mr. Oong,
Miss! Mister! Teacher! Professor Liim! Miss!
Minister Laau! Admiral Cia! Mister Gaan!
You! My friend! Madam! 

D. 組合辭合成辭 Combined Word & Compound Word

  台語的語辭,除了單一語辭(單語)之外,另有組合辭。  組合辭就是兩個或以上的單一語辭以連符(-)相連而組成的語辭; 在"根據文法的語辭觀念"中有個例解釋。 

  Beside ordinary simple word, Taiwanese word includes combined word.   Conbined word is the word constructed by binding two or more simple words by hyphene(s).    Individual examples are given in the issue "Grammatical Concept of Word".
    實例有: Examples are:

[1] hopeeng-kea'oeh(和平計劃) peace-project
        <名詞 A><-><名詞 B> = <名詞 A> ee <名詞 B>
       <noun A><-><noun B> = <noun B> of <noun A>

[2] hoehngg-lai(花園內) garden-inside
        <名詞><-><方位介詞>   <noun A><-><postposition>

[3] uytai-kongloo(偉大功勞)  great-achievement
       <形容詞><-><名詞>       <adjective><-><noun>

[4] oh-hagbun(學學問):      learningt-knowledge
       <動詞><-><名詞>        <verb><-><noun>

[5] khaq-toaxhaxn(較大漢)      more-tall
       <(較,最><-><形容詞>
                      <monosyllable comparison adverb><-><adjective>

[6] cyn-khofphvax(真可怕)    very-terrible
       <(很,真,足,太,無)><-><二音節形容詞>
                      <monosyllable adverb><-><two-syllable adjective>

[7] oanseeng-liao(完成了)    accomplished
       <二音節動詞><-><單音節助辭>
                       <twosyllable verb><-><monosyllable suffix>
 

[8] kviaa-jiblaai(走進來)    walk-inward
        <動詞><-><二音節助詞>  <verb><-><twosyllable suffix>

[9] 1997-nii                 1997-year
        <阿剌伯數字><-><單位>  <Arabian numeral><-><unit>

[10] serngkefng-serngsy(聖經聖詩)  bible-hymn
        <名詞 A><-><名詞 B> = <名詞 A> kab <名詞 B>
       <noun A><-><noun B> = <noun A> and <noun B>

[11] byle-taixhofng(美麗大方)  pretty-liberal
       <形容詞><-><形容詞> = <形容詞> koq <形容詞>
       <adjective><-><adjective> = <adjective> and <adjective>

[12]  saosia-hongzax(掃射轟炸)
       <動詞><-><動詞> = <動詞> koq <動詞>
       <verb><-><verb> = <verb> and <verb>

觀念

1.語辭為單位的文章 / 2.名詞句 / 3.辭與句 / 4.語辭的文法屬性 / 5.組合辭 -- 語辭-語辭 / 6.特殊形式的語辭