林繼雄  專講

 
台語 ee 聲調  Tones in Taiguo

                                    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  出版 ti 林繼雄:「台語網路聖經: 創世記(1998)」p.148~151


現代文前景 EDUTECH

速查:基調音 (F-tones), 高調音 (Rtones), 迴旋音 (B-tones), 下突音 (D-tones), 上突音 (P-tones) 低促音 (LS-tones),   高促音 (HS-tones),    聲調間ee關係,
 聲調 kabee 高低       台語辭調 ee 練習

基 本 觀 念
 

◎   任何語言 lorng 有 固定 ee 聲調。 通常, ti 語文中, 並無 刻意 表明出 各音節 ee 聲調。  一句話中, 聲調 afnnar 分布, 是 起頭 學習 hitkux ee, tioh 記起來 ee

There are fixed tone-variations in words of every kind of languages.  Generally, the tone of a syllable in a word is not specifically shown in the literal form of the word.  People remembers the tone-variation of every word, when he first encounters that word in the primary stage of learning.
 
 
 漢人 讀 古詩, 就 愛 探討 其中 每一個 漢字 ee kab 調。

. Han People likes to read classic poems, so they emphasizes the sound and tone of every Chinese character in the poem.
 

◎ 現代生活中 ee 台語 ee 學習, kab teq 學習 千年前 ee 古詩, 並無 完全 siokang

. To learn the modern Taiwanese language, is not the same as learning poems of thousand years ago.
 

 現代人 學習 台語, 無需要 先 練習 聲調 ee 分類。 其實, 咱 ho 初學者 由 台語 ee 拼字 laai 感受 每一句話 ee kab 調。

. In order to study Taiwanese language, a modern people need not study hard  the tone characteristics of each word.   We let a begginer, remenbers the pronunciation of each word, which include the sence of tone of each syllable in the word from its spelling.
 

 只有 後來, boeq tuy 辭典 學習 不在生活中 ee 台語辭 ee, ciaq 由 拼字 laai 認識 正確 ee kab 調, 也 由 正確 ee 台語發音 laai 拼出 正確 ee 拼字。
 
. Only at the later stage, one like to study those unfamiliar words from the dictionary, then he can recognize the accurate tone and sound from the spelling.  He becomes also able to write the accurate spelling of the word from its accurate pronunciation.


 
各 類 聲 調
   基調音 (F-tones), 高調音(R-tones), 迴旋音 (B-tones),
   下突音(D-tones), 上突音(P-tones), 低促音 (LS-tones), 高促音 (HS-tones)


 下面 ciah'ee 拼字, 表出 台語 ee 基調音, 是 普通 teq 出聲 時 ee 聲音。

. The followng spellings give the fundamental tone (F-tone) of Taiwanese vowels, which are pronounced without any special consideration.
 

a   e   i   o   o   u 
ai   au    ia   io   iu   iau    oa   oe    ui
am   an   ang   eng   ong   oan 
im   in   iam   iang   ien   iong 
m      ng

 基調音 是 平 ee, 是 無特別 用力 或是 拉高 壓低 ee 平常聲調。
  
. The F-tone is an ordinary tone that is flat and without special stress nor pulling nor oppressing.
 

 Na ti 文中 看著 kab ciah'ee bokang ee 母音拼字, 就 知影 是 其他 ee 聲調。
  
. If you see a differet spelling in any word of the sentence, you know it must be some other tone.


 y(←i), w(←u) ksb 附加著 ~ ee 拼法, 是 boeq 提高 聲音 ee 聲調, 叫做 高調音。   Ciah'ee 是 :
  
y(←i), w(←u) or a spelling with ~f expresses a raised tone(R-tone).  These are :
 

af   ef   y   of   of  w 
ay   aw    iaf   iof  iw   iaw    oaf  oef    uy
afm   afn   afng   efng   ofng   oafn 
ym   yn   iafm   iafng   iefn   iofng 
mf      ngf


 台語中 有 彎曲 ee 聲調, thafng 由 重複 ee 母音字 laai 感受,  zef 就是 迴旋音
  
. You feel a bend tone (B-tone) from a spelling of double vowels.
 

aa   ee   ii   oo   oo  uu 
aai  aau   iaa  ioo  iuu   iaau    oaa  oea    uii
aam   aan   aang   eeng   oong   oaan 
iim   iin   iaam   iaang   ieen   ioong 
mm      ngg


 拼字中 有x ee, ho 你 壓低 聲音, 這是 下突音
  
. If you see a ∼x in the spelling, you depress your sound with a little force, this is thedepressed tone (D-tone).
 

ax   ex   ix   ox   ox  ux 
aix  aux   iax  iox  iux  iaux  oax oex    uix
axm   axn   axng   exng   oxng   oaxn 
ixm   ixn   iaxm   iaxng   iexn   ioxng 
mx      ngx


 用力 推出去 ee 聲音, ti 歐美語言中 時常oe 遇著。  叫 hef 上突音

. Forcefully pushed out tones exist everywhere in Euro-American languages.    We call them the pushed-out tone (P-tone).    These are:
 

ar   ea   ie   or   or  uo 
ae   ao    iar   ior  iuo   iao    oar  oea    uie
arm   arn   arng   erng   orng   oarn
irm   irn   iarm   iarng   iern   iorng 
mr      ngr

 Ciah'ee 拼字, 對應 下面 ee 教會羅馬字音標:
  
. These spellings correspond to following phonetical expressions:
 

[a/]    [e/]    [i/]    [o/]    [o/]    [u/]
 
[a/i]  [a/u]     [ia/]   [io/]  [iu/]  [ia/u]   [oa/]   [oe/]   [uie/]

[a/m]   [a/n]    [a/ng]    [e/ng]    [o/ng]     [oa/n]

[i/m]   [i/n]   [ia/m]   [ia/ng]   [ie/n]  [io/ng]
 
 [[m/]         [ng/

 發出 下突音 ee 時陣, 將 氣息 稍停, 就 成為 一種 「促音」, 叫做 低促音。  Kab zef 相對, 發 上突音 時, 將 氣息 稍停, 就 成為 另一種 促音, 叫做 高促音。 如:
 

下突音 ax  →  低促音 aq     上突音 ar 高促音 ah
下突音 oax 低促音 oaq   上突音 oar高促音 oah.

. Cutting short, the depressed tones and the pushed-out tones changes to the lower-stops (LS tones) and the higher-stops (HS tones), correspondingly.
 
 
 低促音 ee 鬫r 為 :
 
. Spellings of LS-tones are as follows:
 

aq   eq   iq   oq   oq  uq 
aiq  auq   iaq  ioq  iuq  iauq  oaq oeq   uiq
ab    ad  ag    eg   og   oad 
ib    id   iab   iag   ied   iog
mq      ngq


 而高促音 ee 鬫r 為 :
 
. And spellings of HS-tones are as follows:
 

ah   eh   ih   oh   oh  uh 
aih  auh   iah  ioh  iuh  iauh  oah oeh   uih
ap    at  ak    ek   ok   oat 
ip    it   iap   iak   iet   iok 
mh      ngh




聲 調 間 ee 關 係
 
漢 字  音
┌───────┴───────┐
   平聲(軟聲)                  仄聲(強聲)
┌───┴───┐         ┌───┴───┐
平順聲     彎曲聲      突擊聲     頓促聲
┌─┴─┐     ┌─┴─┐     ┌─┴─┐    ┌─┴─┐
基調音 高調音 迴旋音 (迴升音) 下突音 上突音 低促音 高促音
(例) oa    oaf        oaa    oaar      oax    oar      oaq     oah 

  




聲 調 kabee 高 低
 
(平 柔 聲 音) (用 力 聲 音) (頓 促 聲 音) 

 
   高調音 ─────────────  oaf
       . . 上突音 oar .高促音  oah
基調音───────────────  oa
     迴旋音 ─────────────  oaa                    . . 下突音 oax 低促音  oaq
(高低) 

( )
 
 
( )
 
 
( 低 )

 註:聲 ee 高低所指 ee, 是 使用 樂器 所能 定出 ee 音階高低。 Ti 樂譜上, eng  (1) do, (2) re, (3) mi, (4) fa, (5) so, (6) la, (7) ti, 分別 唱出來 ee, 就是 cit'ee 聲音高低。
  另外 一套 分辨標準 是聲 ee 強弱。    依此分類,  則
 

   強弱變化                                          語聲調
保持 同強度 ||
 基調, 高調, 迴旋
由強 掉 為弱  |‾↘ | 上突, 下突
由強 而 消失  |‾\ | 高促, 低促


朗 讀 練 習
選  擇
(1)  基調音 kab  用 ~f  ee 高調音       (2) -y  ee 高調音     (3)  -w  ee 高調音
(4)  aa, ii, uu ee 迴旋音(5) ee, oo, oo ee 迴旋音(6) mm, ngg  ee 迴旋音(7) ~x   ee 下突音     (8)   ~r  ee 上突音    (9) 他拼法  ee 上突音.


(1)  基調音 kab 用 ~f   ee 高調音

                     Zef si Guchiaf
    Zef si guchiaf.  Hef si befchiaf.  Zef si kongchiaf.  Hef si hoefchiaf.


     Zef si sikoef.   Hef si tangkoef. Hef si symmih?    Hef si kimkoef. Zef si lanhoef.    Hef si tehoef.   Zef si enghoef.   Hef si boftafn.
        Zef si tepoef.    Si papaf ee tepoef.   Hef si symmih? Hef si mamaf ee te'aw.
        Ciaf si Taitiofng.  Hiaf si Taitafng.   Ciaf si Taisef.     Hiaf si Pintofng.



  Zef si symmih?  Zef si siofmoe ee sinsvaf.  Hef si siofti ee svaf.    Siofti ee svaf, o'of.
   Ciaf u symmih?  Ciaf u cinzoe hoefkimkof.  Hiaf u symmih?  Hiaf ia u cinzoe hoefkimkof.

.

(2)  -y  ee 高調音

                                        Lym  Kapy
  Zef si papaf ee kapy.  Papaf lym kapy. Siofmoe lym byny

(bylefng).    Siofti lym guny(gulefng).
  A'Kiaw, cyn-kofzuy. Yi ma cyn-oe sainay.   Yi ee h
viakof si suky. Y si kongchiaf ee suky.


  Zef si a'Efng ee iency.  Yi u cinzoe iency.  A'Efng ee papaf u bykym.      A'Efng ee mamaf u kimkym ee ngkym.

         Tafui u pengky? Siofti-hiaf u pengky.  Polepoef he pengky, y ciu lerng-kiky. Ciaf u zhengpefng zhafm gulefng. Khaq-tvy ee, si gulefng iafsi pengky?
        Tiafmsym ti tafui? Hef ti mamaf-hiaf.   Tiafmsym u symmih?   U angtau-thngf ma u angtau-pefng.
     Ciaqpng-kefng u tang'of, bykof kab iensuy. Hiaf ma u hepy kab hoeky.


        Svoalai u say kab svoaty.  Haypvy-hiaf u soatuy.  Chimsvoaf-lai ee ty si svoaty.  Kuituy ee soaf si soatuy.


(3)    -w  ee 高調音

                      Cidciaq kimkw
    Ciaf u cidciaq kimkw.   Si zhvef ee kimkw.  Hiaf u kuyciaq kimkw?  Hiaf u kawciaq kimkw.


    Hef si cidciaq kw.  Si haykw, si ti haylai ee haykw.  Haypvy kiarm u kawhia kab titw?
  Hiaf u kuyciaq niaw? U kawciaq niaw. Kitiofng u s
vaciaq, si of ee niaw.  Hef si a'Kiaw yn-taw ee niaw.
  Zhwn-ha-chiw-tofng.   Kaciw na si zhunth
vy, Lamhuy si chiuthvy.           Zhunthvy, joaqthvy, chiuthvy kab kvoathvy.

Afnny Aciw si symmih'thvy?  Ma si zhunthvy.

       Hongthay-thvy, hofng cviatoa.  Thvykngf ee sii, thvy o'of. 
Hofthvy, phvaythvy, sva'kauvoa. Symmih si longhw kytioh thvy teq kithai? .. Si ho.

  A'Li yn-taw ee lauthuy-khaf-hiaf, u cidkefng pangkefng.  Hiaf u cviakngf ee mngthafng, kab cidee toa ee sizefng.  A'Li ee siensvy kab yn-cyhw, ti ciaf kofng'oe, ti ciaf suhhwn.  Ti cit'ee pangkefng-lai, yn u cviazoe thafng hoailiam ee su.


(4)   aa, ii, uu  ee 迴旋音

                     Taioaan-Laang
  Chiuhaa si Taioaan-laang, a'Buun ia si Taioaan-laang. Yn tuy Taioaan laai.   Yn ee akofng kab papaf ti Taioaan.


     Yn-taw ti tofui? . Chiuhaa yn-taw ti Tailaam. . Si Taioaan ee Tailaam. A'Buun yn-taw ti Gilaan. . A'Giim yn-taw ti Zofviaa iafsi Kohioong?

  Tailaam, Gilaan, Zofviaakab Kohioong lorng ti Taioaan. Chiuhaa, a'Buun, a'Giim kab a'Thoo lorng si Taioaan-laang.

  Kinnii si 1997-nii.    Menii si 1998-nii. A'Giimboeq ti 1999-nii khix Kaciw. Tangsii Chiuhaa boeq tngflaai Taioaan? Yi boeq ti menii ee sinnii tngflaai ciaf. Sinnii-y'au. yi ciu ti Taioaan. 
  Hit'ee puipuii, koankoaan, koq bin
vivii ee laang si sviaflaang? Y si a'Kiaw ee hviakof.     Y laai ciaf boeq i-khakiuu.      Y kantvaf boeq i-khakiuu, y m i-nakiuu.


  A'Kiaw ia laai ciaf laq. Yi zheng aang ee svaf kab of ee kuun.    Yi u haa uikuun, .si zuy'aang ee uikuun.


  Zuytii-lai u cvviazoe hii, si kimhii kab lyhii. Longtviu-
hitpeeng u guu kab viuu.


  Hii boe kviaa, guu kab viuu oe kviaa. Oe-kviaa koq oe-poef ee thaang si symmih? Hef si hosiin.


(5)   oo, oo, ee  ee 迴旋音

                        Cidtviw  Too
  Hiaf, koankoaan ee sofzai, u cidtviw too.       Hittiw si symmih'too?  Si cidciaq lionghee ee too. Hitciaq lionghee chinchviu Hayleeng-Oong, ciu'uii u cinzoe hii, hee kab kw.



  Hayleeng-Oong si zuylai ee oong. Y khia ti Liongkiofng, teq thofngti hayviuu.           Laang korng, liongkiofng ti Taioaan ee Phv'oo.    Phvi'oo si tofsu, ti Taioaan ee saipeeng.


  Zuykaw u zhanlee, hnglai u loxlee,  zhawpof u suyguu, ochiw ia ti hiaf.


  Hitzaang si symmih? Hitzaang si viuthoo. Hiaf ma u Phutoo.    Phutoo   svy kuikoo.

    Sviaflaang laai? Chintoong laai. Cympoo, mfpoo tangzoee laai.   Laai, laai, laai. Laai ciaf  ze. Boeq lym angtee iafsi olioong-tee? Yn m limtee, boeq uiloo. Zwnpi angciim, zhawhee kab zulekee. 
     Kiafmboo kiamhii kab afmmoee?  Na boo, u mi ma khaq-
viaa boo.


(6)   mm, ngg  ee 迴旋音

                        Hoehngg-lai
  Hoehngg-lai u cviazoe hoef teq khuy. Chiu u hoe'mm. Kiarm ykefng si zhunthvy? Hoe'mm na khuy,  hiaf ciu koboeq u hoef. Hef si enghoef ee hoe'mm.



 A'Thoo laai hoehngg, yi kab yn-mamaf laai. Yn khia ti hoehngg-mngg-hiaf. Bibii ee zhunhofng teq zhoef yn ee thaumngg.    Zafkhysii ee jidkngf, ho yn ee viar tngtngg.


  Hoehngg u cinzoe hoef. Ngg ee hoef u bidthngg ee phangbi.
Aang ee hoef kvafnar a'Thoo ee angsvaf, ti chvichvy ee zhawpof ee tiong'ngf.


 Lipaf-goa u hanzuu-hngg. Ti hiaf, khiukhiuu ee, .si hanzuu-tiin.
Lipaf-lai si zafkhysii ee hoehngg, si a'Thoo yn-taw ee au-hoehngg.


(7)   ~x  ee 下突音

                                Hoxsvoax
  A'Siux ee hoxsvoax si kofzuy ee hoxsvoax.   A'Kexng ee hoxsvoax si of koq phoax ee hoxsvoax.   Goaxbin si hoxthvy, yn ciu giah hoxsvoax.     Afnny zhutmngg, sengkhw ciaq boe taam. 



    A'Kexng zheng hoxmoaf, a'Siux zheng hoxy.   Yi ia toax chiwthox, in'ui goaxbin cviakvoaa.    Kiarm zay, a'Kexng si a'Siux ee moexsaix? Y ti chixgoa teq zexng kamciax kab zhvezhaix.


  A'Siux boeq khix pan taixcix.   Yi ti chixlai teq sioxngpafn.   Yi si cidee lauxsw, teq kax Engbuun kab lyhoax.  Hoxthvy yi ma boeq khix kax yi ee hagsefng. 


     Expof haxpafn-au, yi ciu khix zhixtviuu boefzhaix.    Hiaf u mixsvoax, kwzhaix, tauxzhaix kab hoezhaix.   Kiarm u kithvaf sinsiefn ee zhvezhaix?   Auxbin hitpeeng u lefngtoxng ee kolezhaix.
        Swnk
voaf, kiamzhaix, kinciof, kab onglaai.     Mixpaw, tauxkvoaf, hi'oaan, kab ienchieen.    U hii, moaa, kampoex, tauxcviux thafng kunthngf.    Bah'iuu, thotau-iuu, moa'iuu boeq zhafzhaix.
         Hoxth
vy, toaxho loh-boextheeng.    A'Siux zhwn thaau khvoax goaxbin.   Ho+aq, ho+aq, nar loh-lorng-boextheeng.   Chiwlai ee toaxpaw zhvezhaix si boeq afnnar kvoa?


(8)   ~r  ee 上突音

                  Porzoar-siong ee Korsu
  Papaf teq khvoax kin'afjit ee porzoar.   Y kiox goarn laai ciaf ze, y boeq korng korsu.   Porzoar u siar Taaioaan-laang phaq hor ee korsu. 

       Y korng:


    "Tngf Jidpurn ciarmlerng Taioaan ee sii, azor tviaxtvia khix phaq hor.   Y korng boeq khix phaq hor, kisit si khix zhoe Jidpurn-laang porsiuu.   Jidpurn-laang ti armsii laai zng+nih, thauthau'ar ka larn ee zngbiin armsngx. 


  "Lirn ee azor, laang cin'iorng koq u zernggi-karm.   Y armsii zhutmngg, zafkhysii ciaq tngr+laai.    Uxsii y oe tioqsiofng, ma boo korng si afnzvoar.   Suijieen guxtioh guihiarm, y ma chiorchiox korng, phaq hor cviaa-hofsngr. 


     "Y u cidee zabor-kviar, si lirn ee amar.    Amar svy papaf, her ciuxsi goar.    Azor cinthviax lirn-amar, mxkafm ho yi ciaqkhor. Amar lorng mxzaiviar lirn-azor si afnnar teq phaq hor. 
        "Uxcidjit, lirn-amar zhar boeq kab azor khix phaq hor.      Azor th
viatioh yi boeq toex, ciu simlai cviaa-hoanlor.        Y-sym cide khykoong, ciu toaxsviaf ka yi me.    Me-liao, y ciu cidlaang pviarsex zao-zhudkhix goaxbin.
       "Hitsii uxlaang kh
voartioh azor ti goaxbin thauthau'ar teq laau bagsae.    Y hiornglaai mxbad afnny ka lirn-amar toaxsviaf me.    Y sviu, y afnny khix phaq Jidpurn-laang, na boextaxng thafng tng+laai, si boeq afnnar ciaq hor.   Lautioh lirn-amar cidee laang ......"
       Kin'afjit ee porzoar u siar phaq hor ee taixcix.    Ti hiaf boo siar, si s
viaflaang khix phq hor.    Tvaf, larn lorng zaiviar, he si larn ee azor.    Larn ciu ia boeq laai oh y, cviazox iofngkarm ee torsu. 


(9)   他拼法  ee 上突音

                    Goar ee Toaxcie, a'Bie
    Goar u cidee toaxcie kiorzox a'Bie.    A'Bie Cie, toa goar siehoex;  yi ee laang suie koq kiesexng cviahor.     Zef, goar kab yi sionghoarn;  goar ee laang zholor, koq kiesexng cviabae.    A'Bie Cie zaiviar goar hotoo, yi iao si cviaa-thviax+goar. 


    Uxcidjit, yi zhoa goar boeq khix khvoarhix.   Kaux hievi ee mngkhao, pailiet boeq jip+khix ee sizun, goar ciaq hoatkiexn boo zaq hie'phiox laai.   Acie khvoax goar teq toa-tioqkib, ciu khinkhyn sof goar ee thaukhag, chiorchiox-korng, "Ae lie koq boexkix+tid."
  Muypae, goar na boeq zhutmngg, yi ciu laai goar ee sinp
vy;  cit'hang-hit'hang 

thoex goar zernglie.   Koq ka goar cit'hang-hit'hang hoanhux laai thechvie.   Zef si in'ui yi zay, goar ee kiesexng tegpiet bae, koq suxsu bogaau phahsngx kab koafnlie.    Yi cibin zernglie cidbin korng,  "Zef ti ciaf, hef ti hiaf, lie tioh mxthafng boexkix+tid." 
  Kuxnii, acie ti Kalie kiet'hwn.   Kiet'hwn-au ciu boeq khix thaekog zox senglie.    Goar tuy Taipag ze hoefchiaf k
voarkhix hux yn ee kiet'hwn-seg. 


       Tngf goar taqjip zhux+nih ee sii, kiet'hwn-seg tehboeq khaisie. Goar kynkirn zawkhix zhoe acie;   ciu ka yi korng, "Kionghie, kionghie.  Goar ee acie !  Zef si lie ee hor-jidcie !"   Goar ciu khaisie ti goar ee svaf ee muy'cidee laktoexar+nih, zhoe hit'ee boeq saxng ho yi ee kym-chiwcie.    Tidtit-zhoe tidtit-zhoe, khioksi lorng zhoe-boo !

  Acie ti hiaf khvoax goar zhoe-gaq bin lorng aang+khylaai.   Yi khia+teq, tarn cidtiap'ar-kuo.   Yi ee bin iao si chiorchiox, ar khinhyn'ar kofngzhud, "Ae, lie koq boexkix+tid laq." 
         A'Bie Cie, goar zoex-chin'aix ee toaxcie.   Suijieen lie ykefng khix ti hngxhng ee Thaekog, goar iao sisioong teq hoailiam
+lie.    Goar ee kiesexng iao si hiahniq'bae, mxkuo sisioong lorng oe s
viuxkhie lie, goar ee acie.    Sviuxkhie lie ee thviarsym, lie ee chiorioong, kab lie ee hitkux oe, "Ae, lie koq boexkix+tid."    Ciah'ee, kaux efng'oarn, goar lorng boe boexkix+tid.