Traditional Grammar of Taiwanese Words
台語語辭的文法分類
              台語現代文的前景EDUTECH 首頁
A.
前言 Preface      B.基本詞類 Primary Parts of Speech   C.(1) 名詞

  (2) 代名詞  (3) 動詞  (3a) 助動詞   (4) 形容詞   (4a) 數詞   (5) 副詞   (6) 介詞  (7) 連詞   (8) 助詞   (9) 歎詞
D.組合辭  E.雙重辭和三重辭      F.造句法
A. 前言 Preface

  .
  在歐美語言的傳統文法觀念裡,語辭依照它的詞類,適宜排列來形成文章;而這些語辭,常有特定形態以供辨認其詞類之外,也依照數時變化而作適當的形態變化。 
  In the traditional grammar of Wester languages, words are arranged to make a sentence according to their parts of speech;  and those words which show special forms for their parts of speech, and may change their forms according to the rules of declension and conjugation. 
  .
    在漢語系語言中,情況卻完全不同。 一個語辭,不作任何的形態變化,而往往單由其在文中的位置而被解釋為某一詞類。 
  In languages in connection with Chinese, however, the situation is quite different.    A given word will never change its form, and its part of speech is decided by the position in the sentence. 
 .
   有一些語辭卻並不容易被當為兩種詞類應用,這時如果由正常的一類改用為另一類時,整個章就成為不合常理的說法,而無法受人理解。 有時,一個語辭,在前冠上一個介詞(前置詞)或在辭尾套加一個接危辭,就能變換為另一詞類。 這些問題就成為台語文法的研討主題了。 
  Some words do not easily change their parts of speech, nad the whole sentence becomes nonsence if the word is misplaced at the position of other part.   Sometimes, a word may change its part of speech by adding a preposition or a suffix.   These problems consturct the may topics for Taiwanese grammar. 

B. 基本詞類 Primary Parts of Speech
  .
  一個語辭在文章中的文法功用,以它的詞類來辨別。 語辭的詞類,大致有下列幾種:
  .
  (1) 名詞   (2) 代名詞   (3) 動詞   (4) 形容詞   (5) 副詞   (6) 介詞   (7) 連詞   (8) 助詞   (9) 歎詞
  .
   在此,助動詞 被包括在動詞之內,而 數詞 被包括在形容詞之內。 這些詞類,以顯著的台語語辭實例分類說明之下。 

   The grammatical usage of a word in the sentence is recognized by th part of speeech.   There are following nine kinds of such parts of speech:
   (1) Noun    (2) Pronoun    (3) Verb    (4) Adjective   (5) Adverb  (6) Preposition and  Postposition 
(7) Conjunction   (8) Auxiliary   (9) Interjection
   Here, Auxiliary Verb is included in (3) Verb, and Numeral in (4) Adjective.    These parts of speech are explained with notable examples from the Taiwanese vocabulary.

C1. 名詞 Noun
  .
定義:所有 人、地、事、物等,實體的名稱。 分類之,如下: 

  Definition:  Names of all objects including those of people, place, matter, and thing, i.e.,
(1) 專有名詞 
    (無限數目)
人名: Liim Keahioong, Tvi Sengkofng, Lincoln, John 
地名: Taipag, Washinton, Paris, Tangkviaf, Liukiuu, Polie
書名: Mafthaix-Hok'ym-Toan, Luxnguo, Taioaan-Lun
時代: Binkog, Konggoaan, Bengtiaau, Zusixn-Sitai
國家種族: Taioaan, Bykog, Holaan, Jidpurn, Goanzuxbiin
團體名: Iogteg Kikimhoe, Kitokkaux, Sengkofng Taixhak
林繼雄,鄭成功,林肯,約翰; 台北,華盛頓,巴黎,東京,琉球,埔里; 馬太福音傳,論語,台灣論
民國,公元,明朝,資訊時代
台灣,美國,荷蘭,日本,原住民
育德基金會,基督教,成功大學
(2) 普通名詞 
   (無限數目) 
個體: laang, ciao, hoef, zhao, haghau, lauxsw, svoaf
質料: zuie, hoea, kym, thiq, bie, beqar, hanzuu, kamciax
集合體: kokkaf, siaxhoe, hagsefng, angbor, chincviaa
人,鳥,花,草,學校,老師,山;  水,火,金,鐵,米,麥仔,番薯,甘蔗;國家,社會,學生,夫妻,親戚
(3) 抽象名詞
   (無限數目)
無形物: zengsiin, zaileeng, hokkhix, khofbun, iuchiuu
性質狀態: zhongbeeng, guihiarm, sarnchiaq, iofngzoxng
動作行為: lolek, hurntox, zoan'id, giefnkiux, khvoarpvi,
  liauxlie, zhay'iong
精神,才能,福氣,苦悶,憂愁
聰明,危險,貧窮,勇壯
努力,奮鬥,專一,研究,看病,料理,採用 
 
(1) Exclusive Nown
     (limitless)
Name of person
Name of place
Name of book
Name of era
Name of Nation
Name of corporation
Liim K.H., Cheng Chengkung, Lincoln, John;
Taipei, Washinton, Paris, Tokyo, Loochoos, Polie;
Mthew's Gospel, Analects of Confucius, the Taiwan;
Minkou, A.D., Min Dynasty, the Era of Information;
Taiwan, America, Dutch, Japan, Taiwanese Aborigines;
Edutech Foundation, Christianity, Chengkung University
(2) Ordinary Noun
     (limitless)
Individual
Commodity
Collective
person, bird, flower,grass, school, mountain;
water, fire, gold, iron, rice, wheat, potato, sugar cane;
nation, society, student, husband & wife, relatives
(3) Abstract noun
     (limitless)
Formless
Character & State
Motion
spirit, talent, fortune, agony, grief;
cleverness, danger, poverty, health;
endeavor, struggle, specialty, research, diagnosis, treatment, appointtment
-

C2. 代名詞 Pronoun.
定義:用來代替特定名詞的語辭。 分類之,如下: 

  Definition:  Words that substitue names of given objects, i.e., 
(1) 稱謂代名詞 
  (有限數目) 
自稱: goar, goarn, larn 
對稱: lie, lirn
他稱: y, yi, yn
統稱: taixkef, pizhuo, hoxsiong
複稱: goarn-taixkef, larn-taixkef, lirn-taixkef, yn-taixkef,,  larn-hoxsiong, goar-kaki, lie-kaki, y-kaki, yi-kaki
我,阮,咱
你,恁
伊,她,尹
大家,彼此,互相;阮大家,咱大家,恁大家,咱互相
我家己,你家己,伊家己,.
(2) 指示代名詞
        (有限數目)
近稱: zef, cit'ee, ciah'ee, ciaf, afnny, citkhoarn, citteq, citboea
遠稱: hef, hit'ee, hiah'ee, hiaf, hitkhoarn, hitteq, hitboeq
不定稱: uxee, uxkoar
這,這個,這些,此,如此,這款,這塊,這尾; 那,那個,彼,那款; 有些,有寡
(3) 疑問代名詞
       (有限數目)
symmih, sviafmih, sviaflaang, tofuim, ui-symmih, tangsii  什麼,甚麼,甚人,何位,為何,何時
(4) 承繼代名詞
       (有限數目)
ee (如:khaq-hor ee,tegpiet ee),^ee,sof'~ ee 的(較好的,特別的),者,所~
 
(1) Appelative Pronoun
                (limitted)
Self
Partner
Others
General
Complex
I, we, we
you, you
he, she, they
all, each other
all of us, all of us, all of you, all of them, muyself, yourself, himself, herself 
(2) Indicative pronoun
               (limitted)
Near
Far
Uncertain
this, this, these, here, thus, like this, this one, this (fish);
that, that, those, there, like that, that one, that (fish);
someone, a few (a little)
(3) Interrogative pronoun     (limitted) what, what, who, where, why, when    (limitted)
(4) Inherit pronoun     (limitted) one (eg. the better one, the special one), what, that which
        =

C3 動詞 Verb
  .
定義:用來說出及於外物之行動(外動詞),僅止於本身的動作(自動詞),或說出是非關係(是非動詞)的語辭。 即: 

 Definition:  Words for action (to others), conduct (of the self), and the relationship of yes-no.  E,g:
(1) 外動詞
         (無限數目)
theh, thviaf, khvoax, phorhoai, katng, ciah, liah, kiax, zay, sngx, giaa, aix, ngrbang, chviar 拿,聽,看,破壞,剪斷,吃,捉,寄,植,算,扛,愛,向望,請
(2) 自動詞
         (無限數目)
通常動詞: thiaux, kviaa, poef, hoaq, ze, iotang, poah 
情意動詞: hvoahie, oarnthaxn, chiox, khaux, iubun, zay
跳,行,飛,喊,坐,搖動,跌
歡喜,怨嘆,笑,哭,憂悶,知
(3) 是非動詞
         (有限數目)
決定性: si, mxsi, tioh, mxtioh, 
推較性: chinchviu, boo-chinchviu, nar 
是,不是,對,不對
親像,無親像,似
 
(1) Transitive verb
               (limitless)
take, hear, look, distroy, carve, eat, catch, mail, plant, count, take, love, hope
(2) Intransitive verb
               (limitless)
general verb
emotional verb
jump, walk, fly, shout, sit, vibrate, fall;
joy, resent, laugh, weep, fear, know
(3) Affirmative -Negative verb
                (limitted)
determinative verb
comparative verb
is (are, am), do
like, seem, resemble 
    

C3a. 助動詞 Auxiliary Verb
  .
定義:用來賦予動詞有時性,意志,欲望,可能性,完成性等之語辭。即: 

 Definition: Words to bestow following verbs concrete time, will, desire, possibility, completion, etc.
助動詞
     (有限數目)
持續性: teq; boteq
可能性: oextaxng, oe, u-khofleeng; boextaxng, boe
可准性: tioh, oexsae, thafng; boexsae, mxthafng
完成性: u, bad;  boo, mxbad
被動性: siu
意志性: boeq, aix, aeboeq; m, bo'aix
必須性: tioh, tioqaix
禁絕性: maix
果感性: kvar; mxkvar
未來性: tehboeq, uxboeq;  boboeq, boo-tehboeq, m
繼承性: ciaq, ciu
或然性: kvafu, kvafboeq, kvaf'm, kvaf'boo, kvar-boboeq
在; 無在
能可,會,有可能; 未可,未
須,能使,可; 未使,不可
有,曾; 無,不曾

要,愛,愛要; 不,無愛 
須,須愛

敢,不敢
將要,有要; 無要,無將要,不 
才,就
敢有,敢要,敢不,敢無,敢無要 
 
Auxiliary verb
             (limitted)
continuation
possibility
allowability
completion
passiveness
will
neccesity
prohibition
daring
future
successive
probable
being; not being 
able to, can, with possibility; unable to. cannot 
allowed to, can; unallowed to, never
have, ever; haven't, never
receive
want, like to, want to; unwilling to, not willing to
must, need
never
dare, dare not
will (shall), prepared to; don't, not prepared to, don't
then to, then
seem, likely to 
    
C4. 形容詞 Adjective
  .
定義:用來指明名詞的性質,狀態和地位的語辭。 即: 
 Definition:  Words for appointing the property, state and rang of the noun.  E.g;:
特殊規定:在現代拼字文中,名詞前的形態形容詞,必須以連符(-)連到後面的名詞。 
 Regulation: In MLT/TMSS, the apparent adjectives should link to the directly followed noun with a hyphen (-). 
(1) 形態形容詞(無限數目) 性質: hor, bae, suie, syn, hofkhvoax, iofngkarm, gaau
形態: ciafm, koaan, oea, puii, toa, sior, toaxhaxn 
顏色: aang, legseg, chiefnlek, cyseg, ngg, ngkym-seg
程度: zhokib, kogvar, iusiux 
好,壞,美,新,好看,勇敢,棒;尖,高,矮,肥,大,小,大漢;紅,綠色,淺綠,紫色,黃,黃金色;初級,高雅,優秀
(2) 指示形容詞
         (有限數目)
近程: cit'ee, ciah'ee
遠程: hit'ee, hiah'ee
不定: uxee, iuxkoar, bofbor
統括: sofu, itzhex, toa-poxhun 
逐一: muie, muy'ee, tag'ee
別外: padee, kithvaf, 
這個,這些
那個,那些
有些,有寡,某某
所有,一切,大部份
每,每個,各個
別的,其他
(3) 疑問形容詞
         (有限數目)
普通: symmih', sviafmih', sviaflaang, tofui, tangsii', tor, 
      ui-symmih
數量: joazoe, joaxtoa, kuy'ee, kuynaxee, kuytex, 
  kuyciaq
什麼,甚麼,甚人的,何位,何時,何,為什麼;
偌多,偌大,幾個,幾偌個,幾塊,幾隻
 
(1) apparent adjective
               (limitless)
property
form
color
degree
good, bad, beautiful, new, pretty, brave, nice
sharp, high, short, fat, large, small, tall
red, green, pale green, violet, yellow, golden
elementary, elegant, superior
(2) Indicative adjective
                (limitted)
near
far
indefinite
inclusive
each one
another
this these
that, those
some, a little, a certain
every, all, majority of 
each, every,
another, other
(3) Interrogative adjective
                (limitted)
general
quantity
what, what, sho, shere, when, which, why 
how many, how large, how many
    

C4a. 數詞 Numeral
  .
定義: 指出物之數量或分量之語辭。 

 Definition: Words that defining the quantity of things.
數詞
   (有限數目)
數目: id, ji, safm, sux, gvor,liok, chid pad, kiuo, sip,...
順序數: toexid, toexji, toexsvaf, toexsix, toexgo, 
 toexlak, toexchid, toexpoeq, toexkao, toexzap,...
個數: cidee, nngxee, sva'ee, sie'ee, goxee, lag'ee, chit'ee,
  poeh'ee, kawee, zab'ee,..;  cidtex, nngxtex,..;  cidciaq,
  nngxciaq, svaciaq, .. 
一,二,三,四,五,六,七,八,九,十,..; 第一,第二,第三,第四,第五,第六,第七,第八,第九,第十,..;  一個,兩個,三個,四個,五個,六個,七個,八個,九個,十個,..; 一塊,兩塊,..
 
Numeral
       (limitted)
number
ordinal
number of article
one,two,three,four,five,six,seven,eight,nine,ten,... 
first,second,third,fourth,fifth,sixth,seventh,eighth,nineth,tenth,.. 
one piece, two pieces, etc.
    
C5. 副詞 Adverb
  .
定義:用來修飾動詞,形容詞或另一副詞的語辭。即: 
 Definition:  Words to modify verb, adjective or other adverb.  (English translation below may be
          not correctly corresponding to the adverb word.) 
(1) 時間副詞
       (有限數目)
過去: yzeeng, khahzar, kofzar, yzar, lawzar, zengkefng, koeakhix, hitsii, ykefng, zaxjit, zoq+jit
現在: tvaf, citmar, citsii, twtuo, kin'afjit
將來: y'au, cionglaai, kim'au, min'afzaix, au+jit
不定: sisioong, uxsii, efng'oarn, u-cidjit
以前,較早,古草,以早,老早,曾經,過去,那時,已經,昨日,作日
今,即碼,這時,抵抵,今仔日 
以後,將來,今後,明仔日,後日
時常,有時,永遠,有一日
(2) 方位副
       (有限數目)
方向: tafng, tangpeeng, say, saipeeng, laam, lampeeng, pag, pakpeeng
方位: thauzeeng, auxbin, auxpiaq, cviarpeeng, torpeeng, terngbin, exbin, laixbin, goaxbin, goaxkhao, tiongkafn,  hitpeeng, khaq-koaan-hiaf, khaq-ke-hiaf, ..
東,東旁,西,西旁,南,南旁,北,北旁;
頭前,後面,後壁,右旁,左旁,上面,下面,內面,外面,外口,中間,那旁,較高彼,較低彼,... 
(3) 性態副
         (有限數目)
 khaq-hor, khaq-bae, suxsit, boviar, boo-twhor, tekkhag, khaksit,  較好,較壞,事實,無影,的確,確事 
(4) 數次副詞
        (有限數目)
zaesafm, ofng'orng, itlut, cidpae, kapoe 再三,往往,一律,一次,加倍
(5) 定副詞 sengjieen, khaksixn, itteng, tekkhag, tongjieen, engkay, cincviax, sidzex-siong, khvoax+laai, korng+khylaai 誠然,確信,一定,的確,當然,應該,真正,實際上,看來,講起來
(6) 否定副詞 boo, boe, pexngboo, boo-itteng, boo-tekkhag,  boo-gigo, boo-khofleeng 無,不會,並無,無一定,無的確,無疑誤,無可能 
(7) 比較副詞 khaq-, zoex-, khaq-toa, khaq-cior, khaq-sior, zoex-hor, ia, ma, cyn-, cviaa-, huisioong 較,最,較大,較小,較少,最好,
也,亦,真,很,非常 
(8) 疑問副詞 afnnar, juhoo, kiarm, kiafm'u, sviafkhoarn 如何,如何,豈,豈有,甚款
(9) 情況副詞 ~-ar, ~~ ~仔(地), ~~(雙重辭)
 
(1) Time adverb
                 (limitted)
past
        .
present
future
        .
uncertain
before, early, old time, before, earlier, ever, past,
that time, already, yesterday, the day before yesterday;  now, present, this time, just, today;
later, future, from now on, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow; always, sometimes, for ever, some day
(2) Direction adverb
                (limitted)
diquarter
direction
east, eastern, west, western,south, southern, north, northern;   front, rear, back, right, left, upper, lower, inside, outside, exterior, middle, that side, higher part, lower part 
(3) Character adverb
                (limitted)
better, worse, in fact, untrue, inconveniently, truely, certainly 
(4) Occurance adverb
                (limitted)
repeatedly, occationally, uniformly, onece, in double
(5) Conclusive adverb never, truly, believed, certainly,  surely, naturally 
(6) Negative adverb without, unable, never, uncertainly,  not surely, unexpectedly, impossiblely
(6) Comparison adverb more, most, greater, less, smaller, best, also, unexpectedly also, very, very, unusually,
(7) Interogative adverb how, how, possibly, ever, however
(8) situation adverb ~ly

 

C6. 介詞 Preposition and Postposition

定義:用來指出語辭間關係的語辭。 分類之,如下: 

  Definition:  Words that define relationship of other words.
(1) 時地介詞  ti, tuix, tuy, zu, iuu, hioxng, kaux, zuxcioong 在,對,從,自,由,向,到,自從
(2) 因果介詞 in'ui, sofie 因為,所以
(3) 方法介詞 eng, ciaux, pie, pykaux, laai, khix, kantvaf, togtok 用,照,比,比較,來,去,干單,獨獨
(4) 領間介詞 ee  
(5) 後接辭 -terng, -e, -tiofng, -lai, -goa, -khaf, -pvy, -zeeng, -kafn, 上,下,中,內,外,腳,邊,前,間 
 
(1) Time-place prepositiont
                (limitted)
at, to, from, from, to pass by, toward, till, beginning from
(2) Indicative preposition because, therefore
(3) Interrogative preposition using, as, comparing, in comparison, then begin, then do, only, alone 
(4) Succesive preposition of
(5) Postposition above, below, middle, inside, outside, under, side, before, between
        =

C7 連詞 Conjunction
  .
定義: 用來指出語辭與語語,句與句,節與節之間連絡關係的語辭。 分類之,如下: 

  Definition:  Words that show relation between a word and a word, a phrase and a phrase, 
or a clause and a clause.
(1) 並列連詞  kab, hafm, koq, jixchviar, ykip, ia, ma, kaizaix  和,含,又,而且,以及,也,亦,佳哉
(2) 選擇連詞 iafsi, mxsi .. ciuxsi, naxboo, na .. ciu 或是,不是...就是,若無,若..就
(3) 承接連詞 sofie, ciu, ciuxsi, zu-afnny, ciu thangzay, usi, koq korng, jien'au 所以,就,就是,自如此,就可知,於是,再說,然後
(4) 轉折連詞 mxkuo, mxkoq, taxnsi, hohorng, putliau, hoafntngr, sviaflaang zay, boo-tekkhag, khioksi, khofsioq, bolun  不過,不復,但是,何況,不料,反轉,甚人知,無的確,可惜,無論
(5) 因果連詞 in'ui .. sofie, goanlaai, inzhuo, iu'uu, tiesuo  因為..所以,原來,因此,由於,致使 
(6) 假設連詞 kafsuo, na, naxsi korng, jukor, cy'iaux 假使,若,若是講,如果,只要
(7) 比較連詞 chinchviu, nar, khofpie, kvafnar, putjuu korng, tefng'uu, ciaoviu 親像,如,可比,敢如,不如講,等於,照樣
 
(1) Parallel conjunction (limitted) and, together with, and also, what is more, and next, too, too, luckily enough 
(2) Selecting conjunction or, not .. then, if not, if ... then
(3) Succesive conjunction so, then, it's then, owing to this, thus to be seen, accordingly, in other words, then 
(4) Contrary conjunction but, but, but, however, unexpectedly, or to say, in contrary, who knows, perhaps, contrarily, unfortunately, regardless
(5) Causality conjunction because .. so, to begin with, owing to this, if, only if
(6) Hypothetical conjunction for instance, if, if to say so, in casxe that, only if 
(7) Comparative conjunction as it were, as if, as an example, like, in another word, equivaletly, as in acoordance to, 
        =

C8 助詞 Auxiliary
  .
定義:用來表現出說話的神情態度的語辭。其必須連在名詞或動詞之尾者,稱為接尾助辭。  即: 

 Definition:  Words to demonstrate the mood and sensation in the speech.  The partial word which must suffix to a noun or a verb for the same effects is called Auxiliary Suffix. 
(1) 名詞接尾助辭 -ar, +niq, +aq 仔,裡,啊
(2) 動詞接尾助辭 -teq, -tioh,-kaux, -laai, -khix, -loqlaai, -loqkhix, -khylaai, -khylix, -cviuxlaai, -cviuxkhix, -jiblaai, -jibkhix, -zhutlaai, -zhutkhix, -zhud,  -jip, -khuy,
-sie, -hor, -liao, -tiaau, -tiau, +boo? +boe? -boo, -mxzay, -mxtioh, -boexkaux, -boexlaai, -boexkhix, -boexzhud, -boexjip, -boexkhuy, -bosie, -mxhor, -boliao, -boextiaau, -boextiau
 得,著,到,來,去,落來,落去,起來,起去,上來,上去,入來,入去,出來,出去,出,入,開,死,好,了,住,掉,無? 未? 無,不知,不著,未到,未來,未去,未出,未入,未開,無死,不好,無了,未住,未掉 
(3) 一般助  laq, neq, ox, maq, oo, hvor, leq, niq, naxtvia  啦,咧,噢,麼,哦,哦,呢,哩,而已
 
 (1) Auxiliary noun suffix (2) Auxiliary verb suffix (3) General suffix
    
C9. 歎詞 Interjection

定義:獨立表達驚訝,讚歎,傷感,痛惜,歡笑,譏諷,憤怒,鄙斥,問安,應諾等表情的語辭。 

  Definition:  Word by itself expressing a sentimental feeling.
(1) 一般歎詞 Ox, Ah, Ae, Hngr, Ai'ah, Hoo? Hvaa? Ha, Hea,
Hee? Oaa, Hahaa, Oaqhar, Afnnar? Symmih! Sviar?  Sviaflaang? Tvaf, Hor! Zharm! Hveq? Si! Tioh, Mxtioh! Chvrar, Zarn!
喔,啊,噯,哼,唉呀,呵?哼?哈,嘿,嘿?娃哇,哈哈,嗢哈,怎樣?什麼!甚?甚人? 今,好!慘!是!是!
對,不對!請,讚! 
(2) 呼叫辭 Oea! Oee! Hae! Hei!  Siaolieen+ee! Oong+ee! Koniuu! Siensvy! Lauxsw! Liim Kaosiu! Siofciar!
Laau Bogsw! Cia Ciongkwn, Gaan+Siensvy!
Lie! Cit'ui peng'iuo! Cit'ui Thaethaix!
喂!唯!嗨!嘿!少年的!王的!
姑娘!先生!老師!林教授!小姐!
劉牧師!謝將軍!顏先生!
你!這位朋友!這位太太!
 
(1) Ordinary interjection Oh, Ah, Ae, H'm (Hem, Hum), Aha, Ha, 
Ha?, Ha, Hah, Ha? Ha, Haha, Haha, How? 
What! What? Who? Now, Good! Terrible, He, Yah! 
Yes, Wrong! Please, Nice!
(2) Accosting Hey (Ay,Aye), Hallo, Hi, Hey:  Young one, Mr. Oong,
Miss! Mister! Teacher! Professor Liim! Miss!
Minister Laau! Admiral Cia! Mister Gaan!
You! My friend! Madam! 

D. 組合辭和合成辭 Combined Word & Compound Word

  台語的語辭,除了單一語辭(單語)之外,另有組合辭。  組合辭就是兩個或以上的單一語辭以連符(-)相連而組成的語辭; 在"根據文法的語辭觀念"中有個例解釋。 

  Beside ordinary simple word, Taiwanese word includes combined word.   Conbined word is the word constructed by binding two or more simple words by hyphene(s).    Individual examples are given in the issue "Grammatical Concept of Word".
    實例有: Examples are:

[1] hopeeng-kea'oeh(和平計劃) . peace-project
     <名詞 A><-><名詞 B> = <名詞 A> ee <名詞 B>
  <noun A><-><noun B> = <noun B> of <noun A>

[2] hoehngg-lai(花園內) .  .  .garden-inside
     <二音節名詞><-><方位介詞> <twosyllable noun><-><postposition>

[3] uytai-kongloo(偉大功勞) . . great-achievement
       <形容詞><-><二音節名詞>       <adjective><-><twosyllable noun>

[4] oh-hagbun(學學問): .  .  .learningt-knowledge
       <動詞><-><名詞>        <verb><-><noun>

[5] khaq-toaxhaxn(較大漢). . . . more-tall
       <(較,最><-><形容詞>
   <monosyllable comparison adverb><-><adjective>

[6] cyn-khofphvax(真可怕) . . .very-terrible
       <(很,真,足,太,無)><-><二音節形容詞>
   <monosyllable adverb><-><two-syllable adjective>

[7] oanseeng-liao(完成了) . . .accomplished
       <二音節動詞><-><單音節助辭>
    <twosyllable verb><-><monosyllable suffix>
 

[8] kviaa-jiblaai(走進來) . . .walk-inward
        <動詞><-><二音節助詞>  <verb><-><twosyllable suffix>
[8'] kviaa^jiblaai(走進來) . . walk+inward
        <動詞><^><二音節助詞> <verb><^><twosyllable suffix>

[9] 1997-nii 1997-year
        <阿剌伯數字><-><單位>  <Arabian numeral><-><unit>

[10] serngkefng-serngsy(聖經聖詩) bible-hymn
     <名詞 A><-><名詞 B> = <名詞 A> kab <名詞 B>
  <noun A><-><noun B> = <noun A> and <noun B>

[11] byle-taixhofng(美麗大方) . .pretty-liberal
         <形容詞><-><形容詞> = <形容詞> koq <形容詞>
  <adjective><-><adjective> = <adjective> and <adjective>

[12]  saosia-hongzax(掃射轟炸)    fire-sweeping-bombing
         <動詞><-><動詞> = <動詞> koq <動詞>
  <verb><-><verb> = <verb> and <verb>
 

合成辭 Compound Word

       由兩個或以上的漢字所構成的中文語辭,都可說是合成辭。這是因為個別漢字都有其固有的意義; 而在古文裡這些原來就是個別的語辭。
       .
    凡是兩個或以上的可獨立的語辭,融合而成為單一語辭者,就叫做合成辭。 有下列情況:
  

  A word which is made up by fusing two or more independent words ia a compound word,   Ordinary two-character Chinese words are all compound words because each Chinese character has its own meaning and thus possibly considered as an independent word.    There are as folows: 
        .
(a) koklai(國內),thvi'e(天下),sviagoa(城外)下).
     <單音節名詞><方位介詞> → <名詞>
      <monosyllable noun><postposition> → <noun>
(b) toaxsu(大事),siofsu(小事), byjiin(美人)
     <單音節形容詞><名詞> → <名詞>
      <monosyllable adjective><noun> → <noun>
(c) oq'oe(學話),thagzheq(讀冊),ciaqpng(吃飯)
     <單音節動詞><單音節名詞> → <名詞>
      <monosyllable verb><monosyllable noun> → <noun>
(d) cinsuie(真美),cviatoa(很大),bohoad(無法)
      <(很,真,足,太,無)><單音節形容詞>
   <monosyllable adverb><monosyllable adjective>→ <adj.,noun>
(e) langlaang(人人),hofhor(好好),thaothaux(透透),kokoo(糊糊),kauxkau(厚厚)
     <單音節語辭><同一語辭> → <雙重辭>
   <monosyllable word><the same word>→ <double word>
    註: (e)項,說明於下節。
(f) ciaqliao(吃了),khvoarhor(看好),kviakoex(走過),zawzhud(走出)
       <單音節動詞><單音節助辭> → <動詞,名詞>
   <monosyllable verb><monosyllable suffix>→ <verb,noun>
    註: (f)項,也可作成組合辭以使語意較明白,如:ciah-liao(吃了),khvoax-hor(看好),
      kviaa-koex(走過),zao-zhud(走出)。


E. 雙重辭三重辭 Double Word & Triple Word

  台語的單音節語辭,反複兩次,則形成雙重辭,而反複三次,便形成三重辭

 單音節名詞 改做雙重辭,常表現出"每個~"的含義。如:
        laang(人) → langlaang(人人),      kog(國)  →  kokkog(國國)
   單音節形容詞 改做雙重辭,若依然當為形容詞用,則表現出"有一點~"的含義。 若改做三重辭,則表現出"非常~"的含義。 請比較:
     [硬]texngteng(硬硬) ... teng(硬) ... teerng'texngteng(硬硬硬)
     [冰]pengpefng(冰冰) ... pefng(冰) ... peerng'pengpefng(冰冰冰)
     [明]bengbeeng(明明) ... beeng(明) ... beerng'bengbeeng(明明明)
     [興]hernghexng(興興) ... hexng(興) ... herng'hernghexng(興興興)
     [冷]lefnglerng(冷冷) ... lerng(冷) ... lefng'lefnglerng(冷冷冷)
     [熟]segsek(熟熟)  ....  sek(熟)  ....  seeg'segsek(熟熟熟)
     [激]kekkeg(激激)  ....  keg(激)  ....  kek'kekkeg(激激激)
三重辭的首音,有eerng,eek等特別的聲調,叫做迴升音。 此調來自基調音,迴旋音,和高調音,如下: 

  〔迴升〕← (高調) 迴升〕←┐
          ↗ ↖ . .↙ ↖           (高促)
(迴旋)→(基調)  (上突)      ↑ ↓ 
       ↘   ↗      (低促)
(下突) 
這個轉調表是為使台語現代拼字不致因各地人士的說話習慣來混亂,而訂定。 稱為規格化轉調規則

   形容詞 改做雙重辭,亦可當為副詞,而在動詞之前,來表示出動做的情況。 如:
     ban(慢) → baxnban(慢慢):  Goarn baxnban kviaa,chviar lirn baxnban-ar tarn..

F. 造句法  Syntax

    造句法 就是寫出,符合台灣人公認的,通順的文章 的方法。 這就是說,台灣話有其固有的 文法 , 而我們由造句法的練習來成為說寫流利台語的人。

   台語的文法,與歐美語言的文法有些差異。例如,用英語說: I came yesterday, 與台語說: Goar zaxjit laai, 在語辭的排列上就有差異。台語不能說: Goar laai zaxjit.
 

句 Clause

   句 就是符合文法的文章。 文法決定其中語辭的前後排列順序。 的華語是句子,在台語中稱為 話句文句

   一個完整的句子,應該能滿足地描述一件事情,或一個情況。 有時一個句子含有兩個
子句 , 用接續詞(連詞)相連起來。 這時,前行的子句宜用逗點(,)來表示其前面整體是一個子句,以免被誤為該接續詞是在連接直前的語辭或辭群。 下例是說你要說安慰的話,
                  Laai khvoax cit'ee laang, koq korng an'uix ee oe.
但是,下文沒有逗點,所以說的是"那個人又說了安慰的話了"。
                  Laai khvoax cit'ee laang koq korng an'uix ee oe.
為了更加明確,後文宜說成:    Laai khvoax cit'ee laang koq teq korng an'uix ee oe.

    文句必含動詞,才能完滿地說好事情或情形。 在台灣話的現代文中,文句的中心是一個動詞。 所以在研究一個句子的時候,必須先找到這個句子的中心動詞,然後才去考察其他各辭互相間及與它的關係。 如:
   Tngf jidthaau ciaxmciam teq axm, ar sofu ee zhunbiin lorng ciah png ciaqpar sviu boeq khix khuxn ee sii, ti hiaf ee chiuxnaa-khaf u lagchit'ee bin kab chiuo zhad o'of ee laang teq sioxng kihoe boeq jiblaai zhunlai chviwkiab.

    這個句子內有很多動詞,但整個句子的中心動詞卻是最下段的 sioxng(相)。 人家問你,這個長文到底在講什麼,你就可以回答說: 此文說, Uxlaang teq sioxng kihoe(有人在相機會)。
 

片語 Phrase ─ 名詞片語 Noun Phrase

    一群語辭,以整體來表出文法上的某一地位的,叫做片語。 通常稱名詞句的,可能是名詞子句名詞片語
   
  文意解析中,有一段話,可用一個名詞(或代名詞)來取代的,那段話就是名詞片語。 如, Goar khix yn kab lie ee haghau.(我去尹與你的學校),可改說成:Goar khix lirn-haghau.   所以,上文中, yn kab lie ee haghau 是一個名詞片語。 用 lirn-haghau(恁學校)來代替是妥當的。

    稍微長一點的句子: Goar khix yn sisioong teq thagzheq ee sofzai.之中,yn sisioong teq thagzheq ee sofzai 也是名詞片語,可用hiaf來取代,而成為 Goar khix hiaf。
 

形容詞片語  Adjective Phrase

    形容詞 一般採取 ∼ ee 的形態, 放在名詞之前。 形容詞和名詞也可直接組合成為一個名詞。 (∼ ee) 是一個 形容詞片語。 如:
                                       .
     形容詞片語 = <語辭>+<ee> . .goar ee, haghau ee, suie ee
     形容詞片語 = <語辭>+<koq>+<語辭>+<ee>suie koq kofzuy ee
     形容詞片語 = <動詞(句)>+<ee> . boeq thagzheq ee, teq hao ee

依照上述,這些形容詞片語後加上名詞,就形成名詞片語,而兩個名詞以 kab 來連的與是,即:
                                       .
     .名詞片語 = <形容詞片語>+<名詞> teq liexnsip ee hagsefng
     .名詞片語 = <名詞>+<kab>+<名詞> toaxlaang kab gyn'ar

副詞片語  Adverbial Phrase

    副詞,一般用來輔助後面的動詞或形容詞。 例如,
Chviar wn-ar kviaa, lie si cincviax tioxng'iaux ee laang.

    因為台語的句子,以動詞為中心,副詞往往呈顯出對整個句子的修飾效果。 文章所說的事情及情形是 何時何處 的事, 就 在文首在主語的直後放置相關的副詞或副詞片語。 如: Min'afzaix, ti konghngg, larn boeq kwheeng pitgiap 5O-ciunii ee tonghak-hoe.

    請注意: (1) 最文首的時間副詞,通常可省略介詞ti(在); (2)文章內同時有時間副詞和場所副詞共存時,先說出時間而後場所; (3)除了要得到特殊效果的詩文以外,副詞不放在動詞的後方。
    Ti(在)是最常用的副詞前介詞。它形成了副詞片語 ti ~。 文中的主語太長的時候,最好用逗點(,)來分割其餘的部份。如,
                  .
    Goarn-lauxsw, ti siuxtioh zernglaang hoanhof ee sii, peq-khylix taiterng

一般說來,

     .副詞片語 = <ti>+<語辭>
     .副詞片語 = <副詞>+<koq>+<副詞> bengkhag koq sioxngsex

動詞片語  Verb Phrase

     台語的動詞前,通常要冠上一個助動詞,例如 "aeboeq thagzheq(想要讀書)"。 這是最起碼的動詞片語。 動詞前冠上副詞或副詞片語的,也形成動詞片語,所以:
                                       .
     .動詞片語 = <助動詞>+<動詞> . . . teq liexnsip
     動詞片語 = <副詞>+<動詞> . . .  .hofhor liexnsip
     動詞片語 = <助動詞>+<副詞>+<動詞>teq hofhor liexnsip
     動詞片語 = <副詞>+<助動詞>+<動詞>hofhor teq  liexnsip
     動詞片語 = <動詞>+<koq>+<動詞> .sioxngkhox koq liexnsip
     動詞片語 = <動詞>+<助動詞>+<動詞>zwnpi boeq  liexnsip
     動詞片語 = <動詞>+<laai>+<動詞>zwnpi laai liexnsip
     動詞片語 = <動詞>+<khix>+<動詞>zwnpi khix liexnsip


台語語辭的文法分類     .            1997年林繼雄 著作, 2001年9月 上網